× Updated! Potentials that share interactions are now listed as related models.
 
Citation: V. Botu, R. Batra, J. Chapman, and R. Ramprasad (2017), "Machine Learning Force Fields: Construction, Validation, and Outlook", The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121(1), 511-522. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b10908.
Abstract: Force fields developed with machine learning methods in tandem with quantum mechanics are beginning to find merit, given their (i) low cost, (ii) accuracy, and (iii) versatility. Recently, we proposed one such approach, wherein, the vectorial force on an atom is computed directly from its environment. Here, we discuss the multistep workflow required for their construction, which begins with generating diverse reference atomic environments and force data, choosing a numerical representation for the atomic environments, down selecting a representative training set, and lastly the learning method itself, for the case of Al. The constructed force field is then validated by simulating complex materials phenomena such as surface melting and stress–strain behavior, that truly go beyond the realm of ab initio methods, both in length and time scales. To make such force fields truly versatile an attempt to estimate the uncertainty in force predictions is put forth, allowing one to identify areas of poor performance and paving the way for their continual improvement.

Notes: This potential is an updated version of 2015--Botu-V-Ramprasad-R--Al. Note that the AGNI potentials are machine learning potentials designed to directly reproduce forces and therefore do not directly compute atomic energies.

LAMMPS pair_style agni (2017--Botu-V--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
Citation: V. Botu, and R. Ramprasad (2015), "Learning scheme to predict atomic forces and accelerate materials simulations", Physical Review B, 92(9), . DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.92.094306.
Abstract: The behavior of an atom in a molecule, liquid, or solid is governed by the force it experiences. If the dependence of this vectorial force on the atomic chemical environment can be learned efficiently with high fidelity from benchmark reference results—using "big-data" techniques, i.e., without resorting to actual functional forms—then this capability can be harnessed to enormously speed up in silico materials simulations. The present contribution provides several examples of how such a force field for Al can be used to go far beyond the length-scale and time-scale regimes presently accessible using quantum-mechanical methods. It is argued that pathways are available to systematically and continuously improve the predictive capability of such a learned force field in an adaptive manner, and that this concept can be generalized to include multiple elements.

Notes: This potential is noted as being depreciated in favor of 2017--Botu-V-Batra-R-Chapman-J-Ramprasad-R--Al. Note that the AGNI potentials are machine learning potentials designed to directly reproduce forces and therefore do not directly compute atomic energies.

LAMMPS pair_style agni (2015--Botu-V--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s): superseded


Citation: K. Choudhary, T. Liang, A. Chernatynskiy, Z. Lu, A. Goyal, S.R. Phillpot, and S.B. Sinnott (2015), "Charge optimized many-body potential for aluminum", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 27(1), 015003. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/1/015003.
Abstract: An interatomic potential for Al is developed within the third generation of the charge optimized many-body (COMB3) formalism. The database used for the parameterization of the potential consists of experimental data and the results of first-principles and quantum chemical calculations. The potential exhibits reasonable agreement with cohesive energy, lattice parameters, elastic constants, bulk and shear modulus, surface energies, stacking fault energies, point defect formation energies, and the phase order of metallic Al from experiments and density functional theory. In addition, the predicted phonon dispersion is in good agreement with the experimental data and first-principles calculations. Importantly for the prediction of the mechanical behavior, the unstable stacking fault energetics along the <1 2 -1> direction on the (1 1 1) plane are similar to those obtained from first-principles calculations. The polycrsytal when strained shows responses that are physical and the overall behavior is consistent with experimental observations.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was obtained from Jarvis-FF (https://www.ctcms.nist.gov/~knc6/periodic.html) on 9 Nov. 2018 and posted at Kamal Choudhary's (NIST) request.
File(s):
Citation: M.I. Pascuet, and J.R. Fernández (2015), "Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al-U alloy", Journal of Nuclear Materials, 467, 229-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.09.030.
Abstract: Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al2U, Al3U and Al4U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al3U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence.

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Notes: These files were sent by M.I. Pascuet (CONICET) on 4 May 2016 and posted with her permission.
File(s):
Citation: J.M. Winey, A. Kubota, and Y.M. Gupta (2009), "A thermodynamic approach to determine accurate potentials for molecular dynamics simulations: thermoelastic response of aluminum", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 17(5), 055004. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/17/5/055004.
Abstract: An accurate description of the thermoelastic response of solids is central to classical simulations of compression- and deformation-induced condensed matter phenomena. To achieve the correct thermoelastic description in classical simulations, a new approach is presented for determining interatomic potentials. In this two-step approach, values of atomic volume and the second- and third-order elastic constants measured at room temperature are extrapolated to T = 0 K using classical thermo-mechanical relations that are thermodynamically consistent. Next, the interatomic potentials are fitted to these T = 0 K pseudo-values. This two-step approach avoids the low-temperature quantum regime, providing consistency with the assumptions of classical simulations and enabling the correct thermoelastic response to be recovered in simulations at room temperature and higher. As an example of our approach, an EAM potential was developed for aluminum, providing significantly better agreement with thermoelastic data compared with previous EAM potentials. The approach presented here is quite general and can be used for other potential types as well, the key restriction being the inapplicability of classical atomistic simulations when quantum effects are important.
Citation: J.M. Winey, A. Kubota, and Y.M. Gupta (2010), "Thermodynamic approach to determine accurate potentials for molecular dynamics simulations: thermoelastic response of aluminum", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 18(2), 029801. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/18/2/029801.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2010--Winey-J-M--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by Jonathan Zimmerman (Sandia National Laboratory) and approved for distribution by Michael Winey (Washington State University). It was posted on 16 March 2011.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2010--Winey-J-M--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: V.V. Zhakhovskii, N.A. Inogamov, Y.V. Petrov, S.I. Ashitkov, and K. Nishihara (2009), "Molecular dynamics simulation of femtosecond ablation and spallation with different interatomic potentials", Applied Surface Science, 255(24), 9592-9596. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.04.082.
Abstract: Fast heating of target material by femtosecond laser pulse (fsLP) with duration τL~40–100fs results in the formation of thermomechanically stressed state. Its unloading may cause frontal cavitation of subsurface layer at a depth of 50nm for Al and 100nm for Au. The compression wave propagating deep into material hits the rear-side of the target with the formation of rarefaction wave. The last may produce cracks and rear-side spallation. Results of MD simulations of ablation and spallation of Al and Au metals under action fsLP are presented. It is shown that the used EAM potentials (Mishin et al. and our new one) predict the different ablation and spallation thresholds on absorbed fluence in Al: ablation Fa=6065mJ/cm2 and spallation Fs=120190mJ/cm2, where numbers in brackets show the corresponding values for Mishin potential. The strain rate in spallation zone was 4.3×10^9 1/s at spallation threshold. Simulated spall strength of Al is 7.48.7GPa, that is noticeably less than 10.314GPa obtained from acoustic approximation with the use of velocity pullback on velocity profile of free rear surface. The ablation threshold Fa≈120mJ/cm2 and crater depth of 110nm are obtained in MD simulations of gold with the new EAM potential. They agree well with experiment.

Notes: Dr. Zhakhovsky noted that the potential was used in several works related to MD simulations of laser ablation and shock-wave loading, and that the potential was designed to reproduce the cold stress curves, the shock Hugoniot, and the melting point with good accuracy.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2009--Zhakhovskii-V-V--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: These files were sent by V.V. Zhakhovsky (VNIIA) on 25 Feb. 2017 and posted with his permission. Update March 15, 2020: This version was identified to not be compatible with LAMMPS.
File(s): retracted


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2009--Zhakhovskii-V-V--Al--LAMMPS--ipr2)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was posted on 15 March 2020. It corrects the 4th line to be compatible with LAMMPS by removing the comment "3.36069 ! cohesive energy [eV] to check".
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2009--Zhakhovskii-V-V--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, M.J. Kramer, C.A. Becker, and M. Asta (2008), "Analysis of semi-empirical interatomic potentials appropriate for simulation of crystalline and liquid Al and Cu", Philosophical Magazine, 88(12), 1723-1750. DOI: 10.1080/14786430802206482.
Abstract: We investigate the application of embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials in the study of crystallization kinetics from deeply undercooled melts, focusing on the fcc metals Al and Cu. For this application, it is important that the EAM potential accurately reproduces melting properties and liquid structure, in addition to the crystalline properties most commonly fit in its development. To test the accuracy of previously published EAM potentials and to guide the development of new potential in this work, first-principles calculations have been performed and new experimental measurements of the Al and Cu liquid structure factors have been undertaken by X-ray diffraction. We demonstrate that the previously published EAM potentials predict a liquid structure that is too strongly ordered relative to measured diffraction data. We develop new EAM potentials for Al and Cu to improve the agreement with the first-principles and measured liquid diffraction data. Furthermore, we calculate liquid-phase diffusivities and find that this quantity correlates well with the liquid structure. Finally, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of crystal nucleation from the melt during quenching at constant cooling rate. We find that EAM potentials, which predict the same zero-temperature crystal properties but different liquid structures, can lead to quite different crystallization kinetics. More interestingly, we find that two potentials predicting very similar equilibrium solid and liquid properties can still produce very different crystallization kinetics under far-from-equilibrium conditions characteristic of the rapid quenching simulations employed here.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/fs (2008--Mendelev-M-I--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was provided by Mikhail Mendelev. Besides comment lines, this file is identical to "Al_mm.eam.fs" in the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2008--Mendelev-M-I--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: X.-Y. Liu, F. Ercolessi, and J.B. Adams (2004), "Aluminium interatomic potential from density functional theory calculations with improved stacking fault energy", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 12(4), 665-670. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/12/4/007.
Abstract: A new Al potential with improved stacking fault energy is constructed using the force-matching method. The potential is fitted to an ab initio forces database and various experimental data. By using a slightly larger cut-off, we found that the new potential gives the relaxed stacking fault energy in the experimental range without changing the excellent thermal and surface properties of the original force-matching Al potential given by Ercolessi and Adams (1994 Europhys. Lett. 26 583).

EAM setfl (2004--Liu-X-Y--Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: NEWAl.txt was obtained from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/potentials/main/main.htm and posted with the permission of J.B. Adams.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Liu-X-Y--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: Al-LEA.eam.alloy is a version of the same potential which has been formatted for use in LAMMPS ("D" was replaced by "e", "FCC" by "fcc", and "Al" was added on line 3).
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2004--Liu-X-Y--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: X.W. Zhou, R.A. Johnson, and H.N.G. Wadley (2004), "Misfit-energy-increasing dislocations in vapor-deposited CoFe/NiFe multilayers", Physical Review B, 69(14), 144113. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.69.144113.
Abstract: Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of [Ni0.8Fe0.2/Au] multilayers have revealed the formation of misfit-strain-reducing dislocation structures very similar to those observed experimentally. Here we report similar simulations showing the formation of edge dislocations near the interfaces of vapor-deposited (111) [NiFe/CoFe/Cu] multilayers. Unlike misfit dislocations that accommodate lattice mismatch, the dislocation structures observed here increase the mismatch strain energy. Stop-action observations of the dynamically evolving atomic structures indicate that during deposition on the (111) surface of a fcc lattice, adatoms may occupy either fcc sites or hcp sites. This results in the random formation of fcc and hcp domains, with dislocations at the domain boundaries. These dislocations enable atoms to undergo a shift from fcc to hcp sites, or vice versa. These shifts lead to missing atoms, and therefore a later deposited layer can have missing planes compared to a previously deposited layer. This dislocation formation mechanism can create tensile stress in fcc films. The probability that such dislocations are formed was found to quickly diminish under energetic deposition conditions.

FORTRAN (2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--FORTRAN--ipr1)
Notes: These are the original files sent by X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory) and posted with his permission. C.A. Becker (NIST) modified create.f to include the reference in the generated potential files and the EAM.input file for this composition. These files can be used to generate alloy potentials for Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Fe, Mo, Ta, W, Mg, Co, Ti, and Zr by editing EAM.input. However, as addressed in the reference, these potentials were not designed for use with metal compounds.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was generated by C.A. Becker (NIST) from create.f and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission.
File(s): superseded


FORTRAN (2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--FORTRAN--ipr2)
Notes: The file Zhou04_create_v2.f is an updated version of create.f modified by L.M. Hale (NIST) following advice from X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory). This version removes spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions of the original potential files caused by single/double precision floating point number conflicts.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--LAMMPS--ipr2)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was generated by L.M. Hale from Zhou04_create_v2.f on 13 April 2018 and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission. This version corrects an issue with spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s): superseded


See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2004--Zhou-X-W--Al--LAMMPS--ipr2.
Link(s):
Citation: B.-J. Lee, J.-H. Shim, and M.I. Baskes (2003), "Semiempirical atomic potentials for the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, and Pb based on first and second nearest-neighbor modified embedded atom method", Physical Review B, 68(14), . DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.68.144112.
Abstract: Modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potentials for fcc elements Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, and Pb have been newly developed using the original first nearest-neighbor MEAM and the recently developed second nearest-neighbor MEAM formalisms. It was found that the original MEAM potentials for fcc elements show some critical shortcomings such as structural instability and incorrect surface reconstructions on (100), (110), and/or (111) surfaces. The newly developed MEAM potentials solve most of the problems and describe the bulk properties (elastic constants, structural energy differences), point defect properties (vacancy and interstitial formation energy and formation volume, activation energy of vacancy diffusion), planar defect properties (stacking fault energy, surface energy, surface relaxation and reconstruction), and thermal properties (thermal expansion coefficients, specific heat, melting point, heat of melting) of the fcc elements considered, in good agreement with relevant experimental information. It has been shown that in the MEAM the degree of many-body screening (Cmin) is an important material property and that structural stability at finite temperatures should be included as a checkpoint during development of semiempirical potentials.

LAMMPS pair_style meam (2003--Lee-B-J--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: R.R. Zope, and Y. Mishin (2003), "Interatomic potentials for atomistic simulations of the Ti-Al system", Physical Review B, 68(2), 024102. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.68.024102.
Abstract: Semiempirical interatomic potentials have been developed for Al, α−Ti, and γ−TiAl within the embedded atom method (EAM) formalism by fitting to a large database of experimental as well as ab initio data. The ab initio calculations were performed by the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method within the density functional theory to obtain the equations of state for a number of crystal structures of the Ti-Al system. Some of the calculated LAPW energies were used for fitting the potentials while others for examining their quality. The potentials correctly predict the equilibrium crystal structures of the phases and accurately reproduce their basic lattice properties. The potentials are applied to calculate the energies of point defects, surfaces, and planar faults in the equilibrium structures. Unlike earlier EAM potentials for the Ti-Al system, the proposed potentials provide a reasonable description of the lattice thermal expansion, demonstrating their usefulness for molecular-dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations at high temperatures. The energy along the tetragonal deformation path (Bain transformation) in γ−TiAl calculated with the EAM potential is in fairly good agreement with LAPW calculations. Equilibrium point defect concentrations in γ−TiAl are studied using the EAM potential. It is found that antisite defects strongly dominate over vacancies at all compositions around stoichiometry, indicating that γ−TiAl is an antisite disorder compound, in agreement with experimental data.

EAM tabulated functions (2003--Zope-R-R--Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin.
File(s):
F(ρ): F_al.plt
ρ(r): fal.plt
φ(r): pal.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2003--Zope-R-R--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 4 February 2009 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Al03_releaseNotes_1.pdf. If you use this setfl file, please credit the website in addition to the original reference.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2003--Zope-R-R--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: X.W. Zhou, H.N.G. Wadley, R.A. Johnson, D.J. Larson, N. Tabat, A. Cerezo, A.K. Petford-Long, G.D.W. Smith, P.H. Clifton, R.L. Martens, and T.F. Kelly (2001), "Atomic scale structure of sputtered metal multilayers", Acta Materialia, 49(19), 4005-4015. DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(01)00287-7.
Abstract: A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been used to study nanoscale CoFe/Cu/CoFe multilayer films grown by sputter deposition. Such films have applications in sensors that utilize the giant magnetoresistance effect, for example, read heads in high-density information storage devices. Atomistic simulations based on a molecular dynamics approach and an alloy form of the embedded atom method have been developed to accurately model the sputter deposition of the CoFe/Cu/CoFe multilayers. The simulations show that relatively flat interfaces are formed because of the energetic deposition conditions. However, significant intermixing at the CoFe-on-Cu interface, but not at the Cu-on-CoFe interface, was observed. An abnormal Fe depletion zone is also revealed at the CoFe-on-Cu interface. A three-dimensional atom probe method has been used for a nanoscale chemical analysis of the films. It provided direct verification of the simulations. The simulations have then been used to understand the mechanism responsible for the formation of the intermixing defects observed in the multilayers. A novel deposition technique is proposed which reduces both interfacial mixing and Fe depletion by controlling the incident adatom energies.

Notes: This is superseded by 2004--Zhou-X-W-Johnson-R-A-Wadley-H-N-G--Al, which gives a slightly different parameterization.

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the Al_zhou.eam.alloy file from the LAMMPS potentials folder dated 2007-10-12 and listed as having been contributed by G. Ziegenhain.
Link(s): superseded


Citation: J.B. Sturgeon, and B.B. Laird (2000), "Adjusting the melting point of a model system via Gibbs-Duhem integration: Application to a model of aluminum", Physical Review B, 62(22), 14720-14727. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.62.14720.
Abstract: Model interaction potentials for real materials are generally optimized with respect to only those experimental properties that are easily evaluated as mechanical averages [e.g., elastic constants (at T=0 K), static lattice energies, and liquid structure]. For such potentials, agreement with experiment for the nonmechanical properties, such as the melting point, is not guaranteed and such values can deviate significantly from experiment. We present a method for reparametrizing any model interaction potential of a real material to adjust its melting temperature to a value that is closer to its experimental melting temperature. This is done without significantly affecting the mechanical properties for which the potential was modeled. This method is an application of Gibbs-Duhem integration [D. Kofke, Mol. Phys. 78, 1331 (1993)]. As a test we apply the method to an embedded atom model of aluminum [J. Mei and J.W. Davenport, Phys. Rev. B 46, 21 (1992)] for which the melting temperature for the thermodynamic limit is 826.4±1.3 K—somewhat below the experimental value of 933 K. After reparametrization, the melting temperature of the modified potential is found to be 931.5±1.5 K.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/fs (2000--Sturgeon-J-B--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was implemented by Mikhail Mendelev and posted with the approval of Dr. Mendelev and Brian Laird.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2000--Sturgeon-J-B--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: Y. Mishin, D. Farkas, M.J. Mehl, and D.A. Papaconstantopoulos (1999), "Interatomic potentials for monoatomic metals from experimental data and ab initio calculations", Physical Review B, 59(5), 3393-3407. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.59.3393.
Abstract: We demonstrate an approach to the development of many-body interatomic potentials for monoatomic metals with improved accuracy and reliability. The functional form of the potentials is that of the embedded-atom method, but the interesting features are as follows: (1) The database used for the development of a potential includes both experimental data and a large set of energies of different alternative crystalline structures of the material generated by ab initio calculations. We introduce a rescaling of interatomic distances in an attempt to improve the compatibility between experimental and ab initio data. (2) The optimum parametrization of the potential for the given database is obtained by alternating the fitting and testing steps. The testing step includes a comparison between the ab initio structural energies and those predicted by the potential. This strategy allows us to achieve the best accuracy of fitting within the intrinsic limitations of the potential model. Using this approach we develop reliable interatomic potentials for Al and Ni. The potentials accurately reproduce basic equilibrium properties of these metals, the elastic constants, the phonon-dispersion curves, the vacancy formation and migration energies, the stacking fault energies, and the surface energies. They also predict the right relative stability of different alternative structures with coordination numbers ranging from 12 to 4. The potentials are expected to be easily transferable to different local environments encountered in atomistic simulations of lattice defects.

EAM tabulated functions (1999--Mishin-Y--Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin.
File(s):
F(ρ): F_al.plt
ρ(r): fal.plt
φ(r): pal_m.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1999--Mishin-Y--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 30 December 2008 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Al99_releaseNotes_1.pdf. If you use this setfl file, please credit the website in addition to the original reference.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1999--Mishin-Y--Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: K.W. Jacobsen, P. Stoltze, and J.K. Nørskov (1996), "A semi-empirical effective medium theory for metals and alloys", Surface Science, 366(2), 394-402. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(96)00816-3.
Abstract: A detailed derivation of the simplest form of the effective medium theory for bonding in metallic systems is presented, and parameters for the fcc metals Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Au are given. The derivation of parameters is discussed in detail to show how new parameterizations can be made. The method and the parameterization is tested for a number of surface and bulk problems. In particular we present calculations of the energetics of metal atoms deposited on metal surfaces. The calculated energies include heats of adsorption, energies of overlayers, both pseudomorphic and relaxed, as well as energies of atoms alloyed into the first surface layer.

Citation: F. Ercolessi, and J. B Adams (1994), "Interatomic Potentials from First-Principles Calculations: The Force-Matching Method", Europhysics Letters (EPL), 26(8), 583-588. DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/26/8/005.
Abstract: We present a new scheme to extract numerically "optimal" interatomic potentials from large amounts of data produced by first-principles calculations. The method is based on fitting the potential to ab initio atomic forces of many atomic configurations, including surfaces, clusters, liquids and crystals at finite temperature. The extensive data set overcomes the difficulties encountered by traditional fitting approaches when using rich and complex analytic forms, allowing to construct potentials with a degree of accuracy comparable to that obtained by ab initio methods. A glue potential for aluminium obtained with this method is presented and discussed.

Notes: By design, this potential is not expected to be accurate for geometries with extremely low coordination -- such as small molecules -- which were not included in the training set.

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: K.W. Jacobsen, J.K. Norskov, and M.J. Puska (1987), "Interatomic interactions in the effective-medium theory", Physical Review B, 35(14), 7423-7442. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.35.7423.
Abstract: An expression is derived for the total energy of a system of interacting atoms based on an ansatz for the total electron density of the system as a superposition of atom densities taken from calculations for the atoms embedded in a homogeneous electron gas. This leads to an expression for the interaction energy in terms of the embedding energy of the atoms in a homogeneous electron gas, and corrections accounting, for instance, for the d-d hybridization in the transition metals. The density of the homogeneous electron gas is chosen as the average of the density from the surrounding atoms. Due to the variational property of the total-energy functional, the errors in the interaction energy are second order in the deviation of the ansatz density from the true ground-state value. The applicability of the approach is illustrated by calculations of the cohesive properties of some simple metals and all the 3d transition metals. The interaction energy can be expressed in a form simple enough to allow calculations for low-symmetry systems and is very well suited for simulations of time-dependent and finite-temperature problems. Preliminary results for the phonon-dispersion relations and the surface energies and relaxations for Al are used to illustrate the versatility of the approach. The division of the total energy into a density-dependent part, an electrostatic "pair-potential" part, and a hybridization part provides a very simple way of understanding a number of these phenomena.

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the Al_jnp.eam file from the LAMMPS potentials folder dated 2007-06-11.
Link(s):
Citation: L.A. Girifalco, and V.G. Weizer (1959), "Application of the Morse Potential Function to Cubic Metals", Physical Review, 114(3), 687-690. DOI: 10.1103/physrev.114.687.
Abstract: The Morse parameters were calculated using experimental values for the energy of vaporization, the lattice constant, and the compressibility. The equation of state and the elastic constants which were computed using the Morse parameters, agreed with experiment for both face-centered and body-centered cubic metals. All stability conditions were also satisfied for both the face-centered and the body-centered metals. This shows that the Morse function can be applied validly to problems involving any type of deformation of the cubic metals.

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Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is the "low cutoff" variation.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is the "medium cutoff" variation.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is the "high cutoff" variation.
Link(s):
 
Citation: K.W. Jacobsen, P. Stoltze, and J.K. Nørskov (1996), "A semi-empirical effective medium theory for metals and alloys", Surface Science, 366(2), 394-402. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(96)00816-3.
Abstract: A detailed derivation of the simplest form of the effective medium theory for bonding in metallic systems is presented, and parameters for the fcc metals Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Au are given. The derivation of parameters is discussed in detail to show how new parameterizations can be made. The method and the parameterization is tested for a number of surface and bulk problems. In particular we present calculations of the energetics of metal atoms deposited on metal surfaces. The calculated energies include heats of adsorption, energies of overlayers, both pseudomorphic and relaxed, as well as energies of atoms alloyed into the first surface layer.

Notes: EMT uses a global cutoff, and this cutoff depends on the largest atom in the simulation. For single-element simulations, please use the single-element parametrizations, as they use a cutoff more appropriate for the element in question (and are marginally faster).

 
Citation: S. Starikov, I. Gordeev, Y. Lysogorskiy, L. Kolotova, and S. Makarov (2020), "Optimized interatomic potential for study of structure and phase transitions in Si-Au and Si-Al systems", Computational Materials Science, 184, 109891. DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109891.
Abstract: Metal-semiconductor nanostructures are key objects for multifunctional electronics and optical design. We report a new interatomic potential for atomistic simulation of a ternary Si-Au-Al system. The development procedure was based on the force-matching method that allowed us to create the potential without use of experimental data at the fitting. Extensive validation including elastic, thermophysical and defect properties demonstrates a wide range of the potential applicability. Special attention was paid to the description of the silicon-metal alloys in liquid and amorphous states. We used the new potential for study of crystallization and glass transition in the undercooled melt. The simulation results revealed the beneficial conditions for the formation of the unique metal-semiconductor nanocrystalline structure, which is highly important for various applications in the field of nanophotonics.

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Notes: This file was sent by Sergei Starikov (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russia) on 30 June 2020 and posted with his permission.
File(s): superseded


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Notes: This file was sent by Sergei Starikov (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russia) on 6 Dec 2020. Dr. Starikov notes that "In the updated version of the potential, I fixed a bug leading to non-physical minima on E-V dependencies at low density of pure Si. The modification of the potential consists of a little change in the slope of the Embedded function F(rho) near rho = 0 for Si. This avoids the appearance of global minima for simulations of extremely expanded crystal lattices."
File(s):
 
Citation: G.P. Purja Pun, V. Yamakov, and Y. Mishin (2015), "Interatomic potential for the ternary Ni–Al–Co system and application to atomistic modeling of the B2–L10 martensitic transformation", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 23(6), 065006. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/23/6/065006.
Abstract: Ni–Al–Co is a promising system for ferromagnetic shape memory applications. This paper reports on the development of a ternary embedded-atom potential for this system by fitting to experimental and first-principles data. Reasonably good agreement is achieved for physical properties between values predicted by the potential and values known from experiment and/or first-principles calculations. The potential reproduces basic features of the martensitic phase transformation from the B2-ordered high-temperature phase to a tetragonal CuAu-ordered low-temperature phase. The compositional and temperature ranges of this transformation and the martensite microstructure predicted by the potential compare well with existing experimental data. These results indicate that the proposed potential can be used for simulations of the shape memory effect in the Ni–Al–Co system.

Notes: The reference information was updated on 26 Aug. 2015.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Al-Co--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by Y. Mishin (George Mason Univ.) on 17 Sept. 2013 and was posted on 17 Jan. 2014. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Mishin-Al-Co-2013_lammps.pdf.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Al-Co--LAMMPS--ipr2)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by G Purja Pun (George Mason Univ.) on 12 Oct. 2015 and was posted on 15 Dec. 2015. This version corrects an issue with the cutoff distance for Co interactions that was discovered during calculations of pressure dependent elastic constants.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Al-Co--LAMMPS--ipr2.
Link(s):
Citation: W.-P. Dong, H.-K. Kim, W.-S. Ko, B.-M. Lee, and B.-J. Lee (2012), "Atomistic modeling of pure Co and Co–Al system", Calphad, 38, 7-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2012.04.001.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials for pure Co and the Co–Al binary system have been developed based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) potential formalism. The potentials can describe various fundamental physical properties of the relevant materials in good agreement with experimental information. The potential is utilized to an atomistic computation of interfacial properties between fcc-Co (γ) and Co3Al (γ′) phases. It is found that the anisotropy in the γ/γ′ interfacial energy is relatively small and leaves a room for further modification by alloying other elements. The applicability of the atomistic approach to an elaborate alloy design of advanced Co-based superalloys through the investigation of the effect of alloying elements on interfacial and elastic properties is discussed.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: C. Vailhé, and D. Farkas (1997), "Shear faults and dislocation core structures in B2 CoAl", Journal of Materials Research, 12(10), 2559-2570. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.1997.0340.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials of the embedded atom and embedded defect type were derived for the Co–Al system by empirical fitting to the properties of the B2 CoAl phase. The embedded atom potentials reproduced most of the properties needed, except that, in using this method, the elastic constants cannot be fitted exactly because CoAl has a negative Cauchy pressure. In order to overcome this limitation and fit the elastic constants correctly, angular forces were added using the embedded defect technique. The effects of angular forces to the embedded atom potentials were seen in the elastic constants, particularly C44. Planar fault energies changed up to 30% in the 110 and 112 γ surfaces and the vacancy formation energies were also very sensitive to the non-central forces. Dislocation core structures and Peierls stress values were computed for the 〈100〉 and 〈111〉 dislocations without angular forces. As a general result, the dislocations with a planar core moved for critical stress values below 250 MPa in contrast with the nonplanar cores for which the critical stress values were above 1500 MPa. The easiest dislocations to move were the 1/2〈111〉 edge superpartials, and the overall preferred slip plane was 110. These results were compared with experimental observations in CoAl and previously simulated dislocations in NiAl.

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Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
 
Citation: D. Farkas, and A. Caro (2020), "Model interatomic potentials for Fe–Ni–Cr–Co–Al high-entropy alloys", Journal of Materials Research, 1-10. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2020.294.
Abstract: A set of embedded atom model (EAM) interatomic potentials was developed to represent highly idealized face-centered cubic (FCC) mixtures of Fe–Ni–Cr–Co–Al at near-equiatomic compositions. Potential functions for the transition metals and their crossed interactions are taken from our previous work for Fe–Ni–Cr–Co–Cu [D. Farkas and A. Caro: J. Mater. Res. 33 (19), 3218–3225, 2018], while cross-pair interactions involving Al were developed using a mix of the component pair functions fitted to known intermetallic properties. The resulting heats of mixing of all binary equiatomic random FCC mixtures not containing Al is low, but significant short-range ordering appears in those containing Al, driven by a large atomic size difference. The potentials are utilized to predict the relative stability of FCC quinary mixtures, as well as ordered L12 and B2 phases as a function of Al content. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with experiments. This interatomic potential set is developed to resemble but not model precisely the properties of this complex system, aiming at providing a tool to explore the consequences of the addition of a large size-misfit component into a high entropy mixture that develops multiphase microstructures.

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Notes: This file was sent by Diana Farkas (Virginia Tech) on 27 Oct. 2020 and posted with her permission.
File(s):
 
Citation: Y.-K. Kim, W.-S. Jung, and B.-J. Lee (2015), "Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potentials for the Ni–Co binary and the Ni–Al–Co ternary systems", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 23(5), 055004. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/23/5/055004.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials for the Ni–Co binary and Ni–Al–Co ternary systems have been developed on the basis of the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) formalism. The potentials describe structural, thermodynamic, deformation and defect properties of solid solution phases or compound phases in reasonable agreements with experiments or first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate the transferability of the potentials and their applicability to large-scale atomistic simulations to investigate the effect of an alloying element, cobalt, on various microstructural factors related to mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys on an atomic scale.

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Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
Citation: G.P. Purja Pun, V. Yamakov, and Y. Mishin (2015), "Interatomic potential for the ternary Ni–Al–Co system and application to atomistic modeling of the B2–L10 martensitic transformation", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 23(6), 065006. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/23/6/065006.
Abstract: Ni–Al–Co is a promising system for ferromagnetic shape memory applications. This paper reports on the development of a ternary embedded-atom potential for this system by fitting to experimental and first-principles data. Reasonably good agreement is achieved for physical properties between values predicted by the potential and values known from experiment and/or first-principles calculations. The potential reproduces basic features of the martensitic phase transformation from the B2-ordered high-temperature phase to a tetragonal CuAu-ordered low-temperature phase. The compositional and temperature ranges of this transformation and the martensite microstructure predicted by the potential compare well with existing experimental data. These results indicate that the proposed potential can be used for simulations of the shape memory effect in the Ni–Al–Co system.

Notes: The reference information was updated on 26 Aug. 2015.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by Y. Mishin (George Mason Univ.) on 17 Sept. 2013 and was posted on 17 Jan. 2014. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Mishin-Ni-Al-Co-2013_lammps.pdf.
File(s): superseded


See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by G Purja Pun (George Mason Univ.) on 12 Oct. 2015 and was posted on 15 Dec. 2015. This version corrects an issue with the cutoff distance for Co interactions that was discovered during calculations of pressure dependent elastic constants.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Ni-Al-Co--LAMMPS--ipr2.
Link(s):
Citation: P. Brommer, and F. Gähler (2006), "Effective potentials for quasicrystals fromab-initiodata", Philosophical Magazine, 86(6-8), 753-758. DOI: 10.1080/14786430500333349.
Abstract: Classical effective potentials are indispensable for any large-scale atomistic simulations, and the relevance of simulation results crucially depends on the quality of the potentials used. For complex alloys such as quasicrystals, however, realistic effective potentials are almost non-existent. We report here our efforts to develop effective potentials especially for quasicrystalline alloy systems. We use the so-called force-matching method, in which the potential parameters are adapted so as to reproduce the forces and energies optimally in a set of suitably chosen reference configurations. These reference data are calculated with ab-initio methods. As a first application, embedded-atom method potentials for decagonal Al–Ni–Co, icosahedral Ca–Cd, and both icosahedral and decagonal Mg–Zn quasicrystals have been constructed. The influence of the potential range and degree of specialization on the accuracy and other properties is discussed and compared.

Notes: This is for the Potential A model described in the reference

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: P. Brommer, and F. Gähler (2006), "Effective potentials for quasicrystals fromab-initiodata", Philosophical Magazine, 86(6-8), 753-758. DOI: 10.1080/14786430500333349.
Abstract: Classical effective potentials are indispensable for any large-scale atomistic simulations, and the relevance of simulation results crucially depends on the quality of the potentials used. For complex alloys such as quasicrystals, however, realistic effective potentials are almost non-existent. We report here our efforts to develop effective potentials especially for quasicrystalline alloy systems. We use the so-called force-matching method, in which the potential parameters are adapted so as to reproduce the forces and energies optimally in a set of suitably chosen reference configurations. These reference data are calculated with ab-initio methods. As a first application, embedded-atom method potentials for decagonal Al–Ni–Co, icosahedral Ca–Cd, and both icosahedral and decagonal Mg–Zn quasicrystals have been constructed. The influence of the potential range and degree of specialization on the accuracy and other properties is discussed and compared.

Notes: This is for the Potential B model described in the reference

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
 
Citation: X.W. Zhou, D.K. Ward, and M.E. Foster (2016), "An analytical bond-order potential for the aluminum copper binary system", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 680, 752-767. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.04.055.
Abstract: Al-rich Al1−xCux alloys are important structural materials in the aerospace industry due to their high strength to density ratio. They are also emerging materials for hydrogen containing structures due to their potentially high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. To enable accurate simulations of the mechanical behavior of Al1−xCux alloys that can guide material improvement, we have developed a high-fidelity analytical bond-order potential (BOP) for the Al-Cu system (the code is publically available in molecular dynamics package LAMMPS). The formalism of the potential is derived from quantum mechanical theories, and the parameters are optimized in an iteration fashion. The iterations begin by fitting properties of a variety of elemental and compound configurations (with coordination varying from 1 to 12) including small clusters, bulk lattices, defects, and surfaces. Following the fitting process, crystalline growth of important equilibrium phases is checked through molecular dynamics simulations of vapor deposition. It is demonstrated that this Al-Cu bond-order potential has unique advantages relative to existing literature potentials in reproducing structural and property tends from experiments and quantum-mechanical calculations, and providing good descriptions of melting temperature, defect characteristics, and surface energies. Most importantly, this BOP is the only potential currently available capable of capturing the Al-rich end of the Al-Cu phase diagram. This capability is rigorously verified by the potential's ability to capture the crystalline growth of the ground-state structures for elemental Al and Cu, as well as, the θ and θ′ phases of the Al2Cu compound in vapor deposition simulations.

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Notes: This file was taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution and listed as having been created by X.W. Zhou (Sandia) Update Jan 15, 2020: It was noticed that the original file hosted here was truncated and incomplete. The incomplete file will not work with LAMMPS versions after 7 Aug 2019. For earlier LAMMPS versions, both versions of the parameter file appear to behave identically.
File(s): superseded


See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was provided by Xiaowang Zhou (Sandia) on Dec 19, 2019. Unlike the eariler implementation above, this file is complete and should work with any version of LAMMPS that supports the bop pair style.
File(s):
Citation: F. Apostol, and Y. Mishin (2011), "Interatomic potential for the Al-Cu system", Physical Review B, 83(5), 054116. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.83.054116.
Abstract: An angular-dependent interatomic potential has been developed for the Al-Cu system based on existing embedded-atom method potentials for Al and Cu and fitting of the cross-interaction functions to experimental and first-principles data. The potential reproduces lattice parameters, formation energies, and elastic constants of the θ and θ′ phases of this system. It predicts the θ′ phase to be more stable than θ at 0 K but to become less stable at hight temperatures due to vibrational entropy. The temperate and entropy of this phase transformation are in good agreement with previous first-principles calculations [C. Wolverton and V. Ozoliņš, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5518 (2001)]. The potential provides a reasonable description of the phase stability across the Al-Cu phase diagram, dilute heats of solution, and other thermodynamic properties. It has also been tested for generalized stacking fault energies in the presence of a copper layer embedded in Al. This configuration bears some resemblance to Guinier-Preston zones that strengthen Al-Cu alloys. The trends predicted by the potential for uniform shearing of this configuration are in agreement with results of first-principles density-functional calculations performed in this work. The potential is expected to be suitable for atomistic simulations of precipitation hardening of Al-Cu alloys.

Notes: Prof. Mishin requested the following be noted: There was a typing error in the original ADP paper (Y. Mishin, et al., Acta Mat. 53, 4029 (2005)). More information and a correction can be found in the FAQ.

ADP tabulated functions (2011--Apostol-F--Al-Cu--table--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution and listed as having been created by CV Singh (Cornell). The tabulated functions and their numerical derivatives appear consistent between this file and the tables listed above.
File(s):
Citation: X.-Y. Liu, C.-L. Liu, and L.J. Borucki (1999), "A new investigation of copper's role in enhancing Al-Cu interconnect electromigration resistance from an atomistic view", Acta Materialia, 47(11), 3227-3231. DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(99)00186-x.
Abstract: An explanation of why Cu prolongs the electromigration lifetime of Al–Cu interconnects in comparison to Al is provided based on atomistic calculations. Copper preferentially segregates to the grain-boundary (GB) interstitial sites. The overall GB diffusivity is reduced with Cu segregation at GB sites. Calculation results predict that in Al(Cu) lines, Cu will diffuse first, with Al diffusion essentially suppressed because of a higher diffusion activation energy. The activation energy for Cu incubation diffusion is calculated to be 0.95 eV. The predictions are in excellent agreement with experiments.

EAM setfl (1999--Liu-X-Y--Al-Cu--table--ipr1)
Notes: al-cu-set.txt was obtained from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/potentials/main/main.htm and posted with the permission of J.B. Adams.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1999--Liu-X-Y--Al-Cu--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: To make the al-cu-set.txt file compatible with the eam/alloy style in LAMMPS, replace line 4 with "2 Al Cu" and the "D"s with "E"s in the numbers. This has been done in al-cu-set.eam.alloy.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1999--Liu-X-Y--Al-Cu--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: J. Cai, and Y.Y. Ye (1996), "Simple analytical embedded-atom-potential model including a long-range force for fcc metals and their alloys", Physical Review B, 54(12), 8398-8410. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.54.8398.
Abstract: A simple analytical embedded-atom method (EAM) model is developed. The model includes a long-range force. In this model, the electron-density function is taken as a decreasing exponential function, the two-body potential is defined as a function like a form given by Rose et al. [Phys. Rev. B 33, 7983 (1986)], and the embedding energy is assumed to be an universal form recently suggested by Banerjea and Smith. The embedding energy has a positive curvature. The model is applied to seven fcc metals (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt) and their binary alloys. All the considered properties, whether for pure metal systems or for alloy systems, are predicted to be satisfactory at least qualitatively. The model resolves the problems of Johnson’s model for predicting the properties of the alloys involving metal Pd. However, more importantly, (i) by investigating the structure stability of seven fcc metals using the present model, we found that the stability energy is dominated by both the embedding energy and the pair potential for fcc-bcc stability while the pair potential dominates and is underestimated for fcc-hcp stability; and (ii) we find that the predicted total energy as a function of lattice parameter is in good agreement with the equation of state of Rose et al. for all seven fcc metals, and that this agreement is closely related to the electron density, i.e., the lower the contribution from atoms of the second-nearest neighbor to host density, the better the agreement becomes. We conclude the following: (i) for an EAM, where angle force is not considered, the long-range force is necessary for a prediction of the structure stability; or (ii) the dependence of the electron density on angle should be considered so as to improve the structure-stability energy. The conclusions are valid for all EAM models where an angle force is not considered.

See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
 
Citation: B. Jelinek, S. Groh, M.F. Horstemeyer, J. Houze, S.G. Kim, G.J. Wagner, A. Moitra, and M.I. Baskes (2012), "Modified embedded atom method potential for Al, Si, Mg, Cu, and Fe alloys", Physical Review B, 85(24), 245102. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.85.245102.
Abstract: A set of modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potentials for the interactions between Al, Si, Mg, Cu, and Fe was developed from a combination of each element's MEAM potential in order to study metal alloying. Previously published MEAM parameters of single elements have been improved for better agreement to the generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE) curves when compared with ab initio generated GSFE curves. The MEAM parameters for element pairs were constructed based on the structural and elastic properties of element pairs in the NaCl reference structure garnered from ab initio calculations, with adjustment to reproduce the ab initio heat of formation of the most stable binary compounds. The new MEAM potentials were validated by comparing the formation energies of defects, equilibrium volumes, elastic moduli, and heat of formation for several binary compounds with ab initio simulations and experiments. Single elements in their ground-state crystal structure were subjected to heating to test the potentials at elevated temperatures. An Al potential was modified to avoid formation of an unphysical solid structure at high temperatures. The thermal expansion coefficient of a compound with the composition of AA 6061 alloy was evaluated and compared with experimental values. MEAM potential tests performed in this work, utilizing the universal atomistic simulation environment (ASE), are distributed to facilitate reproducibility of the results.

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Notes: This file was sent by Bohumir Jelinek (Mississippi State University) and posted on 3 July 2012. He noted, "This is a MEAM potential for Al, Si, Mg, Cu, Fe alloys. It works with LAMMPS, version 19 Jul 2011 or later, when compiled with MEAM support. Most of the MEAM potential results presented in the accompanying paper can be reproduced with Atomistic Simulation Environment (ASE) and testing routines are provided in ase-atomistic-potential-tests-rev60.tar.gz"
File(s):
 
Citation: X.W. Zhou, D.K. Ward, and M.E. Foster (2018), "A bond-order potential for the Al–Cu–H ternary system", New Journal of Chemistry, 42(7), 5215-5228. DOI: 10.1039/c8nj00513c.
Abstract: Al-Based Al–Cu alloys have a very high strength to density ratio, and are therefore important materials for transportation systems including vehicles and aircrafts. These alloys also appear to have a high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and as a result, are being explored for hydrogen related applications. To enable fundamental studies of mechanical behavior of Al–Cu alloys under hydrogen environments, we have developed an Al–Cu–H bond-order potential according to the formalism implemented in the molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. Our potential not only fits well to properties of a variety of elemental and compound configurations (with coordination varying from 1 to 12) including small clusters, bulk lattices, defects, and surfaces, but also passes stringent molecular dynamics simulation tests that sample chaotic configurations. Careful studies verified that this Al–Cu–H potential predicts structural property trends close to experimental results and quantum-mechanical calculations; in addition, it properly captures Al–Cu, Al–H, and Cu–H phase diagrams and enables simulations of H2 dissociation, chemisorption, and absorption on Al–Cu surfaces.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by Dr. Xiaowang Zhou (Sandia National Laboratories) on September 9, 2018 and posted with his permission.
File(s):
 
Citation: E. Lee, and B.-J. Lee (2010), "Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential for the Fe–Al system", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 22(17), 175702. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/22/17/175702.
Abstract: An interatomic potential for the Fe–Al binary system has been developed based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potential formalism. The potential can describe various fundamental physical properties of Fe–Al binary alloys—structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties, defect formation behavior and interactions between defects—in reasonable agreement with experimental data or higher-level calculations. The applicability of the potential to atomistic investigations of various defect formation behaviors and their effects on the mechanical properties of high aluminum steels as well as Fe–Al binary alloys is demonstrated.

LAMMPS pair_style meam (2010--Lee-E--Fe-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, D.J. Srolovitz, G.J. Ackland, and S. Han (2005), "Effect of Fe Segregation on the Migration of a Non-Symmetric Σ5 Tilt Grain Boundary in Al", Journal of Materials Research, 20(1), 208-218. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2005.0024.
Abstract: We present an analysis, based upon atomistic simulation data, of the effect of Fe impurities on grain boundary migration in Al. The first step is the development of a new interatomic potential for Fe in Al. This potential provides an accurate description of Al–Fe liquid diffraction data and the bulk diffusivity of Fe in Al. We use this potential to determine the physical parameters in the Cahn–Lücke–Stüwe (CLS) model for the effect of impurities on grain boundary mobility. These include the heat of segregation of Fe to grain boundaries in Al and the diffusivity of Fe in Al. Using the simulation-parameterized CLS model, we predict the grain boundary mobility in Al in the presence of Fe as a function of temperature and Fe concentration. The order of magnitude and the trends in the mobility from the simulations are in agreement with existing experimental results.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was provided by Mikhail Mendelev. Except for the comment lines, this file is identical to "AlFe_mm.eam.fs" in the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2005--Mendelev-M-I--Al-Fe--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: W.-S. Ko, J.-H. Shim, and B.-J. Lee (2011), "Atomistic modeling of the Al–H and Ni–H systems", Journal of Materials Research, 26(12), 1552-1560. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2011.95.
Abstract: Second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) interatomic potentials for the Al–H and Ni–H binary systems have been developed on the basis of previously developed MEAM potentials of pure Al, Ni, and H. The potentials can describe various fundamental physical properties of the relevant binary alloys (structural, thermodynamic, defect, and dynamic properties of metastable hydrides or hydrogen in face-centered cubic solid solutions) in good agreement with experiments or first-principles calculations. The applicability of the present potentials to atomic level investigations of dynamic behavior of hydrogen atoms in metal membranes is also discussed.

LAMMPS pair_style meam (2011--Ko-W-S--Al-H--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: F. Apostol, and Y. Mishin (2010), "Angular-dependent interatomic potential for the aluminum-hydrogen system", Physical Review B, 82(14), 144115. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.82.144115.
Abstract: We report on the development of an angular-dependent interatomic potential for hydrogen and the aluminum-hydrogen system. The potential reproduces properties of diatomic hydrogen gas, accurate solution energies of hydrogen atoms in crystalline Al, the energetic preference of the tetrahedral interstitial site occupation over octahedral, the hydrogen diffusion barrier in Al, and a number of other properties. Some of the results predicted by the potential have been tested by molecular dynamics simulations. It is suggested that the new potential can be used in atomistic simulations of the effect of dissolved hydrogen on deformation and fracture of Al, a problem which is relevant to hydrogen-induced degradation of Al alloys.

Notes: Prof. Mishin requested the following be noted: There was a typing error in the original ADP paper (Y. Mishin, et al., Acta Mat. 53, 4029 (2005)). More information and a correction can be found in the FAQ.

ADP tabulated functions (2010--Apostol-F--Al-H--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin (George Mason University) and posted on 26 Oct. 2010.
File(s):
Al F(ρ): F_Al.plt
H F(ρ): F_H.plt
Al ρ(r): fAl.plt
H ρ(r): fH.plt
Al φ(r): pAl.plt
H φ(r): pH.plt
Al-H φ(r): pAlH.plt
Al u(r): dAl.plt
H u(r): dH.plt
Al-H u(r): dAlH.plt
Al w(r): qAl.plt
H w(r): qH.plt
Al-H w(r): qAlH.plt

 
Citation: J.E. Angelo, N.R. Moody, and M.I. Baskes (1995), "Trapping of hydrogen to lattice defects in nickel", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 3(3), 289-307. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/3/3/001.
Abstract: This paper addresses the energy associated with the trapping of hydrogen to defects in a nickel lattice. Several dislocations and grain boundaries which occur in nickel are studied. The dislocations include an edge, a screw, and a Lomer dislocation in the locked configuration, i.e. a Lomer-Cottrell lock (LCL). For both the edge and screw dislocations, the maximum trap site energy is approximately 0.1 eV occurring in the region where the lattice is in tension approximately 3-4 angstroms from the dislocation core. For the Lomer-Cottrell lock, the maximum binding energy is 0.33 eV and is located at the core of the a/6(110) dislocation. Several low-index coincident site lattice grain boundaries are investigated, specifically the Sigma 3(112), Sigma 9(221) and Sigma 11(113) tilt boundaries. The boundaries all show a maximum binding energy of approximately 0.25 eV at the tilt boundary. Relaxation of the boundary structures produces an asymmetric atomic structure for both the Sigma 3 and Sigma 9 boundaries and a symmetric structure for the Sigma 11 tilt boundary. The results of this study can be compared to recent experimental studies showing that the activation energy for hydrogen-initiated failure is approximately 0.3-0.4 eV in the Fe-based superalloy IN903. From the results of this comparison it can be concluded that the embrittlement process is likely associated with the trapping of hydrogen to grain boundaries and Lomer-Cottrell locks.

Notes: M.I. Baskes provided the reference property calculations in NiAlH_properties.pdf and a list of papers using this potential. If others should be included, please send the citations.
    \n
  • N.R. Moody, J.E. Angelo, S.M. Foiles, and M.I. Baskes, "Atomistic Simulation of the Hydrogen-Induced Fracture Process in an Iron-Based Superalloy," Sandia National Laboratories Report Number SAND-95-8549C CONF-9510273-1 (1995).
  • \n
  • J.E. Angelo and M.I. Baskes, "Interfacial Studies Using the EAM and MEAM," Interface Sci. 4, 47-63 (1996).
  • \n
  • M.I. Baskes, J.E. Angelo, and N.R. Moody, "Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces," in A.W. Thompson and N.R. Moody, editors. Hydrogen effects in materials: proceedings of the fifth international conference on the effect of hydrogen on the behavior of materials, Moran, Wyoming, 1994. Warrendale, PA: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society; 1996. p. 77-90.
  • \n
  • J.E. Angelo, N.R. Moody, and M.I. Baskes, "Modeling the segregation of hydrogen to lattice defects in nickel," in A.W. Thompson and N.R. Moody, editors. Hydrogen effects in materials: proceedings of the fifth international conference on the effect of hydrogen on the behavior of materials, Moran, Wyoming, 1994. Warrendale, PA: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society; 1996. p. 161-170.
  • \n
  • M.F. Horstemeyer, M.I. Baskes, and S.J. Plimpton, "Length Scale and Time Scale Effects on the Plastic Flow of FCC Metals," Acta Mater. 49, 4363-4374 (2001).
  • \n
  • M.F. Horstemeyer, M.I. Baskes, A. Godfrey, and D.A. Hughes, "A large deformation atomistic study examining crystal orientation effects on the stress-strain relationship," International Journal of Plasticity 18, 203-229 (2002).
  • \n
  • S.G. Srinivasan, X.Z. Liao, M.I. Baskes, R.J. McCabe, Y.H. Zhao, and Y.T. Zhu, "Compact and dissociated dislocations in aluminum: Implications for deformation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 125502 (2005).
  • \n
  • S.G. Srinivasan, M.I. Baskes, and G.J. Wagner, "Atomistic simulations of shock induced microstructural evolution and spallation in single crystal nickel," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043504 (2007).
  • \n
  • Mei. Q. Chandler, M.F. Horstemeyer, M.I. Baskes, P.M. Gullett, G.J. Wagner, and B. Jelinek, "Hydrogen effects on nanovoid nucleation in face-centered cubic single-crystals," Acta Mat. 56, 95-104 (2008).
  • \n
  • Mei. Q. Chandler, M.F. Horstemeyer, M.I. Baskes, G.J. Wagner, P.M. Gullett, and B. Jelinek, "Hydrogen effects on nanovoid nucleation at nickel grain boundaries," Acta Mat. 56, 619-631 (2008).

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1995--Angelo-J-E--Ni-Al-H--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was obtained from the 7 July 2009 LAMMPS distribution and approved by M.I. Baskes.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1995--Angelo-J-E-Moody-N-R-Baskes-M-I--Ni-Al-H.
Link(s):
 
Citation: J.-H. Shim, W.-S. Ko, K.-H. Kim, H.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Suh, Y.W. Cho, and B.-J. Lee (2013), "Prediction of hydrogen permeability in V–Al and V–Ni alloys", Journal of Membrane Science, 430, 234-241. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2012.12.019.
Abstract: A semi-empirical methodology for predicting the permeability of hydrogen in metallic alloys is proposed by combining an atomistic simulation and a thermodynamic calculation. An atomistic simulation based on a modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential and a CALPHAD-type thermodynamic calculation technique was used to predict the diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen, respectively. The approach was applied to the prediction of the hydrogen permeability in V–Al and V–Ni alloys that are promising for non-Pd hydrogen separation membranes. The predicted permeability of hydrogen decreases, as Al or Ni concentration increases in the alloys. The predicted permeability is in quite good agreement with experimental data available in literature, successfully reproducing the overall trend for the effect of alloying elements, which enables an alloy design of metallic hydrogen permeable membranes.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
 
Citation: Y.-M. Kim, N.J. Kim, and B.-J. Lee (2009), "Atomistic Modeling of pure Mg and Mg–Al systems", Calphad, 33(4), 650-657. DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2009.07.004.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials for pure Mg and the Mg.Al binary system have been developed based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potential formalism. The potentials can describe various fundamental physical properties of pure Mg (bulk, point defect, planar defect and thermal properties) and alloy behaviors (thermodynamic, structural and elastic properties) in reasonable agreement with experimental data or higher-level calculations. The applicability of the potential to atomistic investigations on the deformation behavior of pure Mg and the effect of alloying element Al on it is discussed.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, M. Asta, M.J. Rahman, and J.J. Hoyt (2009), "Development of interatomic potentials appropriate for simulation of solid-liquid interface properties in Al-Mg alloys", Philosophical Magazine, 89(34-36), 3269-3285. DOI: 10.1080/14786430903260727.
Abstract: Different approaches are analyzed for construction of semi-empirical potentials for binary alloys, focusing specifically on the capability of these potentials to describe solid–liquid phase equilibria, as a pre-requisite to studies of solidification phenomena. Fitting ab initio compound data does not ensure correct reproduction of the dilute solid-solution formation energy, and explicit inclusion of this quantity in the potential development procedure does not guarantee that the potential will predict the correct solid–liquid phase diagram. Therefore, we conclude that fitting only to solid phase properties, as is done in most potential development procedures, generally is not sufficient to develop a semi-empirical potential suitable for the simulation of solidification. A method is proposed for the incorporation of data for liquid solution energies in the potential development procedure, and a new semi-empirical potential developed suitable for simulations of dilute alloys of Mg in Al. The potential correctly reproduces both zero-temperature solid properties and solidus and liquid lines on the Al-rich part of the Al–Mg phase diagram.

Notes: Update 2010-1-11: Reference information added.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was submitted by M.I. Mendelev and posted on 17 Jul. 2009. 11 Jan. 2010 Update: the first line of the header was updated to reflect the publication status.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2009--Mendelev-M-I--Al-Mg--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: X.-Y. Liu, and J.B. Adams (1998), "Grain-boundary segregation in Al-10%Mg alloys at hot working temperatures", Acta Materialia, 46(10), 3467-3476. DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(98)00038-x.
Abstract: Monte-Carlo simulations are done to determine Mg enrichment at various grain-boundaries of Al–10%Mg alloys at hot working temperatures. The interatomic potentials used in the simulations are developed using the force-matching method. The Mg segregation levels at the grain-boundaries are found to vary from 20% to 40%. The segregation enrichment differences at different grain-boundary sites are explained in terms of atomic size and local hydrostatic stress. The segregation level varies strongly with [110] tilt boundaries from low to high angle while showing minimal variation with [100] twist boundaries. Segregation levels are found to have some correlation with grain-boundary energy. The effect on grain-boundary decohesion due to Mg segregation is found to be a modest (10--35%) reduction in fracture energy compared to the fracture energy in pure Al.

EAM setfl (1998--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--table--ipr1)
Notes: almg.liu is posted with the permission of J.B. Adams and X.-Y. Liu.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1998--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: To make the almg.liu file compatible with the eam/alloy style in LAMMPS, replace line 4 with "2 Mg Al" and the "D"s with "E"s in the numbers. This has been done in almg.liu.eam.alloy.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1998--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: X.-Y. Liu, P.P. Ohotnicky, J.B. Adams, C. Lane Rohrer, and R.W. Hyland (1997), "Anisotropic surface segregation in Al-Mg alloys", Surface Science, 373(2-3), 357-370. DOI: 10.1016/s0039-6028(96)01154-5.
Abstract: A set of embedded-atom method (EAM) potentials for Al-Mg alloys are developed using the "force matching" method. The potentials are fitted to both experimental data and a massive quantum mechanical database of atomic forces at finite temperatures. Using the potentials, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study Mg segregation at different low-index surfaces of an Al alloy with 1–10 at% Mg. Surface enrichments of Mg of the order of 80% are found, and the segregation behavior is generally anisotropic. A set of discrete lattice-plane calculations, based on the nearest-neighbor broken-bond model corrected for strain energy, are shown to drastically reduce the anisotropy of surface segregation.

EAM setfl (1997--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--table--ipr1)
Notes: mg-al-set.txt was obtained from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/potentials/main/main.htm and posted with the permission of J.B. Adams and X.-Y. Liu.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1997--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: To make the mg-al-set.txt file compatible with the eam/alloy style in LAMMPS, replace line 4 with "2 Mg Al" and the "D"s with "E"s in the numbers. This has been done in mg-al-set.eam.alloy.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1997--Liu-X-Y--Al-Mg--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: D.E. Dickel, M.I. Baskes, I. Aslam, and C.D. Barrett (2018), "New interatomic potential for Mg-Al-Zn alloys with specific application to dilute Mg-based alloys", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 26(4), 045010. DOI: 10.1088/1361-651x/aabaad.
Abstract: Because of its very large c/a ratio, zinc has proven to be a difficult element to model using semi-empirical classical potentials. It has been shown, in particular, that for the modified embedded atom method (MEAM), a potential cannot simultaneously have an hcp ground state and c/a ratio greater than ideal. As an alloying element, however, useful zinc potentials can be generated by relaxing the condition that hcp be the lowest energy structure. In this paper, we present a MEAM zinc potential, which gives accurate material properties for the pure state, as well as a MEAM ternary potential for the Mg-Al-Zn system which will allow the atomistic modeling of a wide class of alloys containing zinc. The effects of zinc in simple Mg-Zn for this potential is demonstrated and these results verify the accuracy for the new potential in these systems.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These files were submitted by Doyl Dickel on May 17, 2018.
File(s):
 
Citation: D. Schopf, P. Brommer, B. Frigan, and H.-R. Trebin (2012), "Embedded atom method potentials for Al-Pd-Mn phases", Physical Review B, 85(5), 054201. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.85.054201.
Abstract: A novel embedded atom method (EAM) potential for the Ξ phases of Al-Pd-Mn has been determined with the force-matching method. Different combinations of analytic functions were tested for the pair and transfer part. The best results are obtained if one allows for oscillations on two different length scales. These potentials stabilize structure models of the Ξ phases and describe their energy with high accuracy. Simulations at temperatures up to 1200 K show very good agreement with ab initio results with respect to stability and dynamics of the system.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2012--Schopf-D--Al-Mn-Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This version is compatible with LAMMPS. UPDATE 11 June 2012: The version posted on 26 April 2012 had an extra line in the header and did not work with LAMMPS. This was brought to our attention by Daniel Schopf and the correct version has been posted. Original note: This file was provided by Daniel Schopf (Stuttgart University) and posted with his permission on 26 April 2012.
File(s):
IMD option EAM (2012--Schopf-D--Al-Mn-Pd--IMD--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Daniel Schopf.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2012--Schopf-D--Al-Mn-Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the same files as 2012--Schopf-D--Al-Mn-Pd--IMD--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: D. Farkas, and C. Jones (1996), "Interatomic potentials for ternary Nb - Ti - Al alloys", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 4(1), 23-32. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/4/1/004.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials of the embedded-atom type were developed for the Nb - Al system via an empirical fitting to the properties of A15 Nb3Al. The cohesive energy and lattice parameters are fitted by the potentials, which also give good agreement with experimental values for the same properties in the D022 NbAl3 phase. A second interatomic potential was developed for the Nb - Ti system via a fitting to the lattice parameters and thermodynamic properties of the disordered BCC phase. The Al and Ti potentials used here are the same as those used in our previous work to derive Ti - Al potentials based on TiAl. This allows the use of the present potentials in conjunction with those previously derived interactions to study ternary Nb - Ti - Al alloys. The potentials were used to calculate the heats of solution of Al and Ti in Nb, and to simulate the Ti2NbAl orthorhombic phase.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (1996--Farkas-D--Nb-Ti-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was generated and tested by Ganga Purja Pun and Yuri Mishin (George Mason Univ.) using the files below that were supplied by Diana Farkas (Virginia Tech.). Testing information is in Test_report_AlTiNb.pdf. These files were approved by Dr. Purja Pun and Profs. Farkas and Mishin and posted on 1 Jul 2014.
File(s):
EAM tabulated functions (1996--Farkas-D--Nb-Ti-Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Diana Farkas and approved by her on 1 Jul 2014.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 1996--Farkas-D--Nb-Ti-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: A. Kumar, A. Chernatynskiy, T. Liang, K. Choudhary, M.J. Noordhoek, Y.-T. Cheng, S.R. Phillpot, and S.B. Sinnott (2015), "Charge optimized many-body (COMB) potential for dynamical simulation of Ni-Al phases", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 27(33), 336302. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/33/336302.
Abstract: An interatomic potential for the Ni–Al system is presented within the third-generation charge optimized many-body (COMB3) formalism. The potential has been optimized for Ni3Al, or the γ' phase in Ni-based superalloys. The formation energies predicted for other Ni–Al phases are in reasonable agreement with first-principles results. The potential further predicts good mechanical properties for Ni3Al, which includes the values of the complex stacking fault (CSF) and the anti-phase boundary (APB) energies for the (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) planes. It is also used to investigate dislocation propagation across the Ni3Al (1 1 0)–Ni (1 1 0) interface, and the results are consistent with simulation results reported in the literature. The potential is further used in combination with a recent COMB3 potential for Al2O3 to investigate the Ni3Al (1 1 1)–Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) interface, which has not been modeled previously at the classical atomistic level due to the lack of a reactive potential to describe both Ni3Al and Al2O3 as well as interactions between them. The calculated work of adhesion for this interface is predicted to be 1.85 J m−2, which is in agreement with available experimental data. The predicted interlayer distance is further consistent with the available first-principles results for Ni (1 1 1)–Al2O3 (0 0 0 1).

LAMMPS pair_style comb3 (2015--Kumar-A--Al-Ni--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was obtained from Jarvis-FF (https://www.ctcms.nist.gov/~knc6/periodic.html) on 9 Nov. 2018 and posted at Kamal Choudhary's (NIST) request.
File(s):
Citation: G.P. Purja Pun, and Y. Mishin (2009), "Development of an interatomic potential for the Ni-Al system", Philosophical Magazine, 89(34-36), 3245-3267. DOI: 10.1080/14786430903258184.
Abstract: We construct an interatomic potential for the Ni-Al system within the embedded-atom method formalism. The potential is based on previously developed accurate potentials for pure Ni and Al. The cross-interactions are fitted to experimental cohesive energy, lattice parameter and elastic constants of B2-NiAl, as well as to ab initio formation energies of several real or imaginary intermetallic compounds with different crystal structures and chemical compositions. The potential accurately reproduces a variety of physical properties of the NiAl and Ni3Al phases, and shows reasonable agreement with experimental and ab initio data for phase stability across the Ni-Al phase diagram. Most of the properties reproduced by the new potential were not involved in the fitting process, which demonstrates its excellent transferability. Advantages and certain weaknesses of the new potential in comparison with other existing potentials are discussed in detail. The potential is expected to be especially suitable for simulations of heterophase interfaces and mechanical behavior of Ni-Al alloys.

EAM tabulated functions (2009--Purja-Pun-G-P--Ni-Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin.
File(s):
Al F(ρ): F_Al.plt
Ni F(ρ): F_Ni.plt
Al ρ(r): fAl.plt
Ni ρ(r): fNi.plt
Al φ(r): pAl.plt
Ni φ(r): pNi.plt
Ni-Al φ(r): pNiAl.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2009--Purja-Pun-G-P--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 13 Aug. 2009 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Mishin-Ni-Al-2009_releaseNotes_1.pdf. 15 Dec. 2009: Reference was updated from "in press."
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2009--Purja-Pun-G-P--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
Citation: A.C. Silva, J. Ågren, M.T. Clavaguera-Mora, D. Djurovic, T. Gomez-Acebo, B.-J. Lee, Z.-K. Liu, P. Miodownik, and H.J. Seifert (2007), "Applications of computational thermodynamics - the extension from phase equilibrium to phase transformations and other properties", Calphad, 31(1), 53-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2006.02.006.
Abstract: Complex equilibria and phase transformations involving diffusion can now be calculated quickly and efficiently. Detailed examples are given for cases which involve varying degrees of non-equilibrium and therefore time-dependence. Despite very good agreement between such calculations and experimental results, many potential end-users are still not convinced that such techniques could be usefully applied to their own specific problems. Friendly graphic interface versions of calculating software are now generally available, so the authors conclude that the most likely source of the reluctance to use such tools lies in the formulation of relevant questions and the interpretation of the results. Although the potential impact of such tools was foreseen many years ago [M. Hillert, Calculation of phase equilibria, in: Conference on Phase Transformations, 1968], few changes in the relevant teaching curricula have taken into account the availability and power of such techniques.
This paper has therefore been designed not only as a collection of interesting problems, but also highlights the critical steps needed to achieve a solution. Each example includes a presentation of the "real" problem, any simplifications that are needed for its solution, the adopted thermodynamic formulation, and a critical evaluation of the results. The availability of such examples should facilitate changes in subject matter that will both make it easier for the next generation of students to use these tools, and at the same time reduce the time and effort currently needed to solve such problems by less efficient methods.
The first set of detailed examples includes the deoxidation of steel by aluminum; heat balance calculations associated with ladle additions to steel; the determination of conditions that avoid undesirable inclusions; the role of methane in sintering atmospheres; interface control during the physical vapour deposition of cemented carbide; oxidation of γ-TiAl materials; and simulation of the thermolysis of metallorganic precursors for Si-C-N ceramics and interface reaction of yttrium silicates with SiC-coated C/C-SiC composites for heat shield applications.
A second set of examples, more dependent on competitive nucleation and growth, includes segregation and carburization in multicomponent steels and features a series of sophisticated simulatons using DICTRA software.
Interfacial and strain energies become increasingly important in defining phase nucleation and morphology in such problems, but relatively little information is available compared to free energy and diffusion databases. The final section therefore demonstrates how computational thermodynamics, semi-empirical atomistic approaches and first-principles calculations are being used to aid filling this gap in our knowledge.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
Citation: Y. Mishin (2004), "Atomistic modeling of the γ and γ'-phases of the Ni-Al system", Acta Materialia, 52(6), 1451-1467. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2003.11.026.
Abstract: A new embedded-atom potential has been developed for Ni3Al by fitting to experimental and first-principles data. The potential describes lattice properties of Ni3Al, point defects, planar faults, as well as the γ and γ′ fields on the Ni–Al phase diagram. The potential is applied to calculate the energies of coherent Ni/Ni3Al interphase boundaries with three different crystallographic orientations. Depending on the orientation, the interface energy varies between 12 and 46 mJ/m2. Coherent γ/γ′ interfaces existing at high temperatures are shown to be more diffuse and are likely to have a lower energy than Ni/Ni3Al interfaces.

EAM tabulated functions (2004--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin. Update 2 Sept 2020: parameter files renamed to avoid naming conflict issue.
File(s):
Al F(ρ): F_al.plt
Ni F(ρ): F_ni.plt
Al ρ(r): fal.plt
Ni ρ(r): fni.plt
Al φ(r): pal.plt
Ni φ(r): pni.plt
Ni-Al φ(r): pnial.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 7 Jan 2009 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in NiAl04_releaseNotes_2.pdf. If you use this setfl file, please include the following citation (in addition to the Mishin reference): C.A. Becker, et al. (2011) Philos Mag 91(27) 3578-3597. UPDATE 14 Dec 2020: This version is noted as having non-zero energies for the isolated atoms. Because of this, the potential energies computed for bulk structures are correct, but they do not correspond to cohesive energies. An updated version is listed below.
File(s): superseded


See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2004--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr2)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was created by Lucas Hale and posted 12 Dec 2020 with the permission of Yuri Mishin. The tables in this file were obtained by using cubic spline interpolations of the plt files listed above. This version differs from the last LAMMPS version in that it explicitly sets F(rho=0) = 0 so that isolated atoms have an energy of 0.0. The two LAMMPS versions behave nearly identically except at very small r and at r near the cutoff. See "Version 2 notes.pdf" for a more detailed comparison of the two versions.
File(s):
Citation: Y. Mishin, M.J. Mehl, and D.A. Papaconstantopoulos (2002), "Embedded-atom potential for B2-NiAl", Physical Review B, 65(22), 224114. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.65.224114.
Abstract: An embedded-atom potential has been constructed for the intermetallic compound B2−NiAl by fitting to both experimental properties and ab initio data. The ab initio data have been generated in the form of energy-volume relations for a number of alternative structures of NiAl and Ni3Al, as well as for Ni and Al. The potential accurately reproduces the basic lattice properties of B2−NiAl, planar faults, and point-defect characteristics. It also reproduces the energetics and stability of all other structures included in the fit. The potential is applied to calculate equilibrium point-defect concentrations in B2−NiAl as functions of temperature and composition near the stoichiometry. In contrast to previous calculations, the defect formation entropies arising from atomic vibrations are included in our calculation within the quasiharmonic approximation. Such entropies tend to increase the concentrations of thermal point defects in B2−NiAl at high temperatures, but the atomic disorder mechanism remains triple-defect type up to the melting point.

Notes: As described in the reference, this potential was highly optimized for the B2 phase of NiAl. For other phases (including the elements), it does not work nearly as well as other potentials. For additional information, see C.A. Becker, et al., Phil. Mag. 91, 3578 (2011).

EAM tabulated functions (2002--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin.
File(s):
Notes: README.txt
Al F(ρ): F_al.plt
Ni F(ρ): F_ni.plt
Al ρ(r): fal.plt
Ni ρ(r): fni.plt
Al φ(r): pal.plt
Ni φ(r): pni.plt
Ni-Al φ(r): pnial.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2002--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 14 February 2009 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in NiAl02_releaseNotes_1.pdf. If you use this setfl file, please credit the website in addition to the original reference.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2002--Mishin-Y--Ni-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: A. Kumar, A. Chernatynskiy, T. Liang, K. Choudhary, M.J. Noordhoek, Y.-T. Cheng, S.R. Phillpot, and S.B. Sinnott (2015), "Charge optimized many-body (COMB) potential for dynamical simulation of Ni-Al phases", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 27(33), 336302. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/33/336302.
Abstract: An interatomic potential for the Ni–Al system is presented within the third-generation charge optimized many-body (COMB3) formalism. The potential has been optimized for Ni3Al, or the γ' phase in Ni-based superalloys. The formation energies predicted for other Ni–Al phases are in reasonable agreement with first-principles results. The potential further predicts good mechanical properties for Ni3Al, which includes the values of the complex stacking fault (CSF) and the anti-phase boundary (APB) energies for the (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) planes. It is also used to investigate dislocation propagation across the Ni3Al (1 1 0)–Ni (1 1 0) interface, and the results are consistent with simulation results reported in the literature. The potential is further used in combination with a recent COMB3 potential for Al2O3 to investigate the Ni3Al (1 1 1)–Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) interface, which has not been modeled previously at the classical atomistic level due to the lack of a reactive potential to describe both Ni3Al and Al2O3 as well as interactions between them. The calculated work of adhesion for this interface is predicted to be 1.85 J m−2, which is in agreement with available experimental data. The predicted interlayer distance is further consistent with the available first-principles results for Ni (1 1 1)–Al2O3 (0 0 0 1).

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was obtained from Jarvis-FF (https://www.ctcms.nist.gov/~knc6/periodic.html) on 9 Nov. 2018 and posted at Kamal Choudhary's (NIST) request.
File(s):
 
Citation: Y.-K. Kim, H.-K. Kim, W.-S. Jung, and B.-J. Lee (2017), "Development and application of Ni-Ti and Ni-Al-Ti 2NN-MEAM interatomic potentials for Ni-base superalloys", Computational Materials Science, 139, 225-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2017.08.002.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials for the Ni-Ti and Ni-Al-Ti systems have been developed based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN-MEAM) formalism. The Ni-Ti binary potential reproduces fundamental materials properties (structural, elastic, thermodynamic, and thermal stability) of alloy systems in reasonable agreement with experiments, first-principles calculations and thermodynamic calculations. Atomistic simulations using the Ni-Al-Ti ternary potential validate that the potential can be applied successfully to atomic-scale investigations to clarify the effects of titanium on important materials phenomena (site preference in γ', γ-γ' phase transition, and segregation on grain boundaries) in Ni-Al-Ti ternary superalloys.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
 
Citation: K. Choudhary, T. Liang, A. Chernatynskiy, S.R. Phillpot, and S.B. Sinnott (2015), "Charge optimized many-body (COMB) potential for Al2O3 materials, interfaces, and nanostructures", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 27(30), 305004. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/30/305004.
Abstract: This work presents the development and applications of a new empirical, variable chargepotential for Al2O3 systems within the charge optimized many-body (COMB) potential framework. The potential can describe the fundamental physical properties of Al2O3, including cohesive energy, elastic constants, defect formation energies, surface energies and phonon properties of α-Al2O3 comparable to that obtained from experiments and first-principles calculations. The potential is further employed in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to validate and predict the properties of the Al (1 1 1)–Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) interface, tensile properties of Al nanowires, Al2O3 nanowires, Al2O3-covered Al nanowires, and defective Al2O3 nanowires. The results demonstrate that the potential is well-suited to model heterogeneous material systems involving Al and Al2O3. Most importantly, the parameters can be seamlessly coupled with COMB3 parameters for other materials to enable MD simulations of a wide range of heterogeneous material systems.

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Notes: This file was obtained from Jarvis-FF (https://www.ctcms.nist.gov/~knc6/periodic.html) on 9 Nov. 2018 and posted at Kamal Choudhary's (NIST) request.
File(s):
 
Citation: A. Landa, P. Wynblatt, D.J. Siegel, J.B. Adams, O.N. Mryasov, and X.-Y. Liu (2000), "Development of glue-type potentials for the Al-Pb system: phase diagram calculation", Acta Materialia, 48(8), 1753-1761. DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(00)00002-1.
Abstract: Empirical many-body potentials of the glue-type have been constructed for the Al–Pb system using the "force matching" method. The potentials are fitted to experimental data, physical quantities derived from ab initio linear muffin-tin orbitals calculations and a massive quantum mechanical database of atomic forces generated using ultrasoft pseudopotentials in conjunction with ab initio molecular statics simulations. Monte Carlo simulations using these potentials have been employed to compute an Al–Pb phase diagram which is in fair agreement with experimental data.
Citation: A. Landa, P. Wynblatt, D.J. Siegel, J.B. Adams, O.N. Mryasov, and X.-Y. Liu (2000), "Development of glue-type potentials for the Al–Pb system: phase diagram calculation", Acta Materialia, 48(13), 3621. DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(00)00158-0.

EAM setfl (2000--Landa-A--Al-Pb--table--ipr1)
Notes: alpb.set was sent by Alexander Landa (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) on 25 Mar. 2010 and posted with his permission and that of Don Siegel (University of Michigan).
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2000--Landa-A--Al-Pb--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: alpb-setfl.eam.alloy is a version of the same potential which has been formatted for use in LAMMPS ("D" was replaced by "E" and "Al Pb" was added on line 4). It successfully ran with the 20Feb10 version of LAMMPS.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2000--Landa-A--Al-Pb--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: G.-U. Jeong, C.S. Park, H.-S. Do, S.-M. Park, and B.-J. Lee (2018), "Second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method interatomic potentials for the Pd-M (M = Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Ti) binary systems", Calphad, 62, 172-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2018.06.006.
Abstract: Palladium (Pd) has attracted attention as one of the major components of noble metal catalysts due to its excellent reactivity to a wide range of catalytic reactions. It is important to predict and control the atomic arrangement in catalysts because their properties are known to be affected by it. Therefore, to enable atomistic simulations for investigating the atomic scale structural evolution, we have developed interatomic potentials for Pd-M (M = Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Ti) binary systems based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method formalism. These potentials reproduce various fundamental properties of the alloys (the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of compound and solution phases, and order-disorder transition temperature) in reasonable agreements with experimental data, first-principles calculations and CALPHAD assessments. Herein, we propose that these potentials can be applied to the design of robust bimetallic catalysts by predicting the shape and atomic arrangement of Pd bimetallic nanoparticles.

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Notes: The meam files were generated from the word file which was obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam.
File(s):
 
Citation: J.-S. Kim, D. Seol, J. Ji, H.-S. Jang, Y. Kim, and B.-J. Lee (2017), "Second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method interatomic potentials for the Pt-M (M = Al, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Ti, V) binary systems", Calphad, 59, 131-141. DOI: 10.1016/j.calphad.2017.09.005.
Abstract: Interatomic potentials for Pt-M (M = Al, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Ti, V) binary systems have been developed on the basis of the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) formalism. The parameters of pure Mo have also been newly developed to solve a problem in the previous 2NN MEAM potential in which the sigma and α-Mn structures become more stable than the bcc structure. The potentials reproduce various materials properties of alloys (structural, thermodynamic and order-disorder transition temperature) in reasonable agreements with relevant experimental data and other calculations. The applicability of the developed potentials to atomistic investigations for the shape and atomic configuration of Pt bimetallic nanoparticles is demonstrated.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
 
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, F. Zhang, Z. Ye, Y. Sun, M.C. Nguyen, S.R. Wilson, C.Z. Wang, and K.M. Ho (2015), "Development of interatomic potentials appropriate for simulation of devitrification of Al90Sm10alloy", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 23(4), 045013. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/23/4/045013.
Abstract: A semi-empirical potential for the Al90Sm10 alloy is presented. The potential provides satisfactory reproduction of pure Al properties, the formation energies of a set of Al–Sm crystal phases with Sm content about 10%, and the structure of the liquid Al90Sm10 alloy. During molecular dynamics simulation in which the liquid alloy is cooled at a rate of 1010 K s−1, the developed potential produces a glass structure with lower ab initio energy than that produced by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) itself using a typical AIMD cooling rate of 8*10^13 K s−1. Based on these facts the developed potential should be suitable for simulations of phase transformations in the Al90Sm10 alloy.

Notes: Mikhail Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) noted that the potential "was developed to simulate the solidification/devitrification in the Al90Sm10 alloy." The reference was updated on 13 June 2015.

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Notes: This file was provided by Mikhail Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) and posted with his permission on 24 Oct. 2014.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2015--Mendelev-M-I--Al-Sm--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: Y.-K. Kim, H.-K. Kim, W.-S. Jung, and B.-J. Lee (2016), "Atomistic modeling of the Ti–Al binary system", Computational Materials Science, 119, 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.03.038.
Abstract: An interatomic potential for the Ti–Al binary system has been developed based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) formalism. This potential describes fundamental materials properties (structural, thermodynamic, elastic, defect, deformation and thermal properties) of Ti–Al alloys in good agreements with experimental or first-principles data. The transferability and applicability of the present potential to atomic-scale investigations for Ni-based superalloys or Ti–Al based alloys are demonstrated.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
Citation: R.R. Zope, and Y. Mishin (2003), "Interatomic potentials for atomistic simulations of the Ti-Al system", Physical Review B, 68(2), 024102. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.68.024102.
Abstract: Semiempirical interatomic potentials have been developed for Al, α−Ti, and γ−TiAl within the embedded atom method (EAM) formalism by fitting to a large database of experimental as well as ab initio data. The ab initio calculations were performed by the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method within the density functional theory to obtain the equations of state for a number of crystal structures of the Ti-Al system. Some of the calculated LAPW energies were used for fitting the potentials while others for examining their quality. The potentials correctly predict the equilibrium crystal structures of the phases and accurately reproduce their basic lattice properties. The potentials are applied to calculate the energies of point defects, surfaces, and planar faults in the equilibrium structures. Unlike earlier EAM potentials for the Ti-Al system, the proposed potentials provide a reasonable description of the lattice thermal expansion, demonstrating their usefulness for molecular-dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations at high temperatures. The energy along the tetragonal deformation path (Bain transformation) in γ−TiAl calculated with the EAM potential is in fairly good agreement with LAPW calculations. Equilibrium point defect concentrations in γ−TiAl are studied using the EAM potential. It is found that antisite defects strongly dominate over vacancies at all compositions around stoichiometry, indicating that γ−TiAl is an antisite disorder compound, in agreement with experimental data.

EAM tabulated functions (2003--Zope-R-R--Ti-Al--table--ipr1)
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin.
File(s):
Al F(ρ): F_al.plt
Ti F(ρ): F_ti.plt
Al ρ(r): fal.plt
Ti ρ(r): fti.plt
Al φ(r): pal.plt
Ti φ(r): pti.plt
Ti-Al φ(r): ptial.plt

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2003--Zope-R-R--Ti-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1)
See Computed Properties
Notes: This conversion was produced by Chandler Becker on 26 Sept. 2009 from the plt files listed above. This version is compatible with LAMMPS. Validation and usage information can be found in Zope-Ti-Al-2003_releaseNotes_1.pdf.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org. This KIM potential is based on the files from 2003--Zope-R-R--Ti-Al--LAMMPS--ipr1.
Link(s):
 
Citation: M.I. Pascuet, and J.R. Fernández (2015), "Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al-U alloy", Journal of Nuclear Materials, 467, 229-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.09.030.
Abstract: Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al2U, Al3U and Al4U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al3U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence.

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Notes: These files were sent by M.I. Pascuet (CONICET) on 22 Apr. 2016 and posted with her permission.
File(s):
 
Citation: J.-H. Shim, W.-S. Ko, K.-H. Kim, H.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Suh, Y.W. Cho, and B.-J. Lee (2013), "Prediction of hydrogen permeability in V–Al and V–Ni alloys", Journal of Membrane Science, 430, 234-241. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2012.12.019.
Abstract: A semi-empirical methodology for predicting the permeability of hydrogen in metallic alloys is proposed by combining an atomistic simulation and a thermodynamic calculation. An atomistic simulation based on a modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential and a CALPHAD-type thermodynamic calculation technique was used to predict the diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen, respectively. The approach was applied to the prediction of the hydrogen permeability in V–Al and V–Ni alloys that are promising for non-Pd hydrogen separation membranes. The predicted permeability of hydrogen decreases, as Al or Ni concentration increases in the alloys. The predicted permeability is in quite good agreement with experimental data available in literature, successfully reproducing the overall trend for the effect of alloying elements, which enables an alloy design of metallic hydrogen permeable membranes.

See Computed Properties
Notes: These potential files were obtained from http://cmse.postech.ac.kr/home_2nnmeam, accessed Nov 9, 2020.
File(s):
See Computed Properties
Notes: Listing found at https://openkim.org.
Link(s):
 
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, M.J. Rahman, J.J. Hoyt, and M. Asta (2010), "Molecular-dynamics study of solid-liquid interface migration in fcc metals", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 18(7), 074002. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/18/7/074002.
Abstract: In order to establish a link between various structural and kinetic properties of metals and the crystal–melt interfacial mobility, free-solidification molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for a total of nine embedded atom method interatomic potentials describing pure Al, Cu and Ni. To fully explore the space of materials properties three new potentials have been developed. The new potentials are based on a previous description of Al, but in each case the liquid structure, the melting point and/or the latent heat are varied considerably. The kinetic coefficient, μ, for all systems has been compared with several theoretical predictions. It is found that at temperatures close to the melting point the magnitude of μ correlates well with the value of the diffusion coefficient in the liquid.

Notes: This listing is for the Al' parameterization listed in the reference. It has exactly the same functional form and used the same fitting method as 2008--Mendelev-M-I-Kramer-M-J-Becker-C-A-Asta-M--Al except that the target values for the melting temperature and the latent heat of melting were set to 500 K and 0.05 eV/atom, respectively.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by M.I. Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) on 29 Mar. 2010 and posted with his permission on 21 Apr. 2010. The reference was later updated when the publication status changed.
File(s):
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, M.J. Rahman, J.J. Hoyt, and M. Asta (2010), "Molecular-dynamics study of solid-liquid interface migration in fcc metals", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 18(7), 074002. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/18/7/074002.
Abstract: In order to establish a link between various structural and kinetic properties of metals and the crystal–melt interfacial mobility, free-solidification molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for a total of nine embedded atom method interatomic potentials describing pure Al, Cu and Ni. To fully explore the space of materials properties three new potentials have been developed. The new potentials are based on a previous description of Al, but in each case the liquid structure, the melting point and/or the latent heat are varied considerably. The kinetic coefficient, μ, for all systems has been compared with several theoretical predictions. It is found that at temperatures close to the melting point the magnitude of μ correlates well with the value of the diffusion coefficient in the liquid.

Notes: This listing is for the Al'' parameterization listed in the reference. It has exactly the same functional form and used the same fitting method as 2008--Mendelev-M-I-Kramer-M-J-Becker-C-A-Asta-M--Al except that the target pair correlation function was selected to give a more ordered liquid structure.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by M.I. Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) on 29 Mar. 2010 and posted with his permission on 21 Apr. 2010. The reference was later updated when the publication status changed.
File(s):
Citation: M.I. Mendelev, M.J. Rahman, J.J. Hoyt, and M. Asta (2010), "Molecular-dynamics study of solid-liquid interface migration in fcc metals", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 18(7), 074002. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/18/7/074002.
Abstract: In order to establish a link between various structural and kinetic properties of metals and the crystal–melt interfacial mobility, free-solidification molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for a total of nine embedded atom method interatomic potentials describing pure Al, Cu and Ni. To fully explore the space of materials properties three new potentials have been developed. The new potentials are based on a previous description of Al, but in each case the liquid structure, the melting point and/or the latent heat are varied considerably. The kinetic coefficient, μ, for all systems has been compared with several theoretical predictions. It is found that at temperatures close to the melting point the magnitude of μ correlates well with the value of the diffusion coefficient in the liquid.

Notes: This listing is for the Al''' parameterization listed in the reference. It has exactly the same functional form and used the same fitting method as 2008--Mendelev-M-I-Kramer-M-J-Becker-C-A-Asta-M--Al except that the target pair correlation function was selected to give a considerably more ordered liquid structure.

See Computed Properties
Notes: This file was sent by M.I. Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) on 29 Mar. 2010 and posted with his permission on 21 Apr. 2010. The reference was later updated when the publication status changed.
File(s):
 
Citation: J.E. Jones (1924), "On the Determination of Molecular Fields. I. From the Variation of the Viscosity of a Gas with Temperature", Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 106(738), 441-462. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1924.0081.
Abstract: Until our knowledge of the disposition and motion of the electrons in atoms and molecules is more complete, we cannot hope to make a direct calculation of the nature of the forces called into play during an encounter between molecules in a gas. It is true that a step in this direction has recently been made by Debye, who has investigated the nature of the field in the neighbourood of a hydrogen atom, assumed to consist of a negative charge in motion in circular orbit about a positive nucleus, and has shown how the pulsating field gives rise on the whole to a force of repulsion, as well as one of attraction on a unit negative charge. But it is difficult to see how this work can be extended to more complex systems. At present we can only hope to derive information by more indirect methods. One such method is to assume a definite law of force, and then by the methods of the kinetic theory to deduce the appropriate law of dependence of the viscosity of a gas on temperature. Comparison with the actual law, as observed experimentally, serves to support or discredit the assumed law of molecular interaction. Unfortunately, the calculations involved in the application of be kinetic theory are so complicated that progress has been made only in certain simple cases. Thus, the original investigation by Maxwell applied only to molecules repelling as the inverse fifth power law. His work has since be generalised by Chapman and Enskog and formulæ have been obtained: the coefficient of viscosity in the case of (i) molecules, which repel according an inverse nth power law, (ii) molecules which behave on collision like rigid elastic spheres and (iii) molecules which behave as rigid elastic spheres with weak attractive field of force surrounding them. Of these models the latter, generally referred to as Sutherland’s model, is found to give the best agreement between theory and experiment. But the agreement is by no means perfect. As Schmidt, Bestelmeyer, Vogel, and others have pointed out, there is considerable divergence from observed values at low temperatures.
Citation: J.E. Jones (1924), "On the Determination of Molecular Fields. II. From the Equation of State of a Gas", Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 106(738), 463-477. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1924.0082.
Abstract: The investigation of a preceding paper has shown that the temperature variation of viscosity, as determined experimentally, can be satisfactorily explained in many gases on the assumption that the repulsive and attractive parts of the molecular field are each according to an inverse power of the distance. In some cases, in argon, for example, it was further shown that the experimental facts can be explained by more than one molecular model, from which we inferred that viscosity results alone are insufficient to determine precisely the nature of molecular fields. The object of the present paper is to ascertain whether a molecular model of the same type will also explain available experimental data concerning the equation of state of a gas, and if so, whether the results so obtained, when taken in conjunction with those obtained from viscosity, will definitely fix the molecular field. Such an investigation is made possible by the elaborate analysis by Kamerlingh Onnes of the observational material. He has expressed the results in the form of an empirical equation of state of the type pv = A + B/v + C/v2 + D/v4 + E/v6 + F/v8, where the coefficients A ... F, called by him virial coefficients, are determined as functions of the temperature to fit the observations. Now it is possible by various methods to obtain a theoretical expression for B as a function of the temperature and a strict comparison can then be made between theory and experiment. Unfortunately the solution for B, although applicable to any molecular model of spherical symmetry, is purely formal and contains an integral which can be evaluated only in special cases. This has been done up to now for only two simple models, viz., a van der Waals molecule, and a molecule repelling according to an inverse power law (without attraction), but it is shown in this paper that it can also be evaluated in the case of the model, which was successful in explaining viscosity results. As the two other models just mentioned are particular cases of this, the appropriate formulæ for B are easily deduced from the general one given here.
Citation: J.E. Lennard-Jones (1925), "On the Forces between Atoms and Ions", Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 109(752), 584-597. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1925.0147.
Abstract: The ultimate knowledge which we can hope to derive from many of the physical properties of gases and crystals is that which concerns the nature of the forces between the constituent atoms and ions. In terms of these forces many diverse phenomena both of gases and solids should be explicable. In some recent researches the writer has sought to determine the repulsive part of the forces between certain atoms and ions in terms of inverse power laws. This representation is considered superior to the treatment of atoms and ions as rigid spheres with definite diameters, as is generally done, for it permits of the correlation of the physical properties of a gas with those of certain associated crystals. Thus the forces which explain the thermal conductivity of neon have been shown to explain as well the observed spacing constants of crystals like NaF and MgO. These researches had their starting point in an investigation of certain physical properties of the pure gases, and this formed a necessary preliminary step to the later work on crystals. The methods there developed were, however, applicable only to neon and argon, for only in those cases was the necessary experimental information available. Consequently the later extension to include the forces of ions applied only to ions of similar electronic structure to these gases.

Notes: This is a 'universal' parameterization for the Lennard-Jones 6-12 model driver for all species.

Date Created: October 5, 2010 | Last updated: December 16, 2020