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Citation: G.P. Purja Pun, K.A. Darling, L.J. Kecskes, and Y. Mishin (2015), "Angular-dependent interatomic potential for the Cu-Ta system and its application to structural stability of nano-crystalline alloys", Acta Materialia, 100, 377-391. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2015.08.052.
Abstract: Atomistic computer simulations are capable of providing insights into physical mechanisms responsible for the extraordinary structural stability and strength of immiscible Cu–Ta alloys. To enable reliable simulations of these alloys, we have developed an angular-dependent potential (ADP) for the Cu–Ta system by fitting to a large database of first-principles and experimental data. This, in turn, required the development of a new ADP potential for elemental Ta, which accurately reproduces a wide range of properties of Ta and is transferable to severely deformed states and diverse atomic environments. The new Cu–Ta potential is applied for studying the kinetics of grain growth in nano-crystalline Cu–Ta alloys with different chemical compositions. Ta atoms form nanometer-scale clusters preferentially located at grain boundaries (GBs) and triple junctions. These clusters pin some of the GBs in place and cause a drastic decrease in grain growth by the Zener pinning mechanism. The results of the simulations are well consistent with experimental observations and suggest possible mechanisms of the stabilization effect of Ta.

LAMMPS pair_style adp (2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Ta--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was provided by Yuri Mishin (George Mason University) on 2 Nov. 2018.
File(s):
Citation: R. Ravelo, T.C. Germann, O. Guerrero, Q. An, and B.L. Holian (2013), "Shock-induced plasticity in tantalum single crystals: Interatomic potentials and large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations", Physical Review B, 88(13), 134101. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.88.134101.
Abstract: We report on large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shock wave compression in tantalum single crystals. Two new embedded atom method interatomic potentials of Ta have been developed and optimized by fitting to experimental and density functional theory data. The potentials reproduce the isothermal equation of state of Ta up to 300 GPa. We examined the nature of the plastic deformation and elastic limits as functions of crystal orientation. Shock waves along (100), (110), and (111) exhibit elastic-plastic two-wave structures. Plastic deformation in shock compression along (110) is due primarily to the formation of twins that nucleate at the shock front. The strain-rate dependence of the flow stress is found to be orientation dependent, with (110) shocks exhibiting the weaker dependence. Premelting at a temperature much below that of thermodynamic melting at the shock front is observed in all three directions for shock pressures above about 180 GPa.

Notes: This listing is for the reference's potential parameter set Ta1.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2013--Ravelo-R--Ta-1--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: Ta1 interaction in LAMMPS-compatible format. Approved by Prof. Ravelo (Univ. of Texas at El Paso) and posted on 15 Feb. 2014 with his permission.
File(s):
SPaSM
Notes: Ta1 interaction in SPaSM tables. Approved by Prof. Ravelo (Univ. of Texas at El Paso) and posted on 15 Feb. 2014 with his permission.
File(s):
Citation: R. Ravelo, T.C. Germann, O. Guerrero, Q. An, and B.L. Holian (2013), "Shock-induced plasticity in tantalum single crystals: Interatomic potentials and large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations", Physical Review B, 88(13), 134101. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.88.134101.
Abstract: We report on large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shock wave compression in tantalum single crystals. Two new embedded atom method interatomic potentials of Ta have been developed and optimized by fitting to experimental and density functional theory data. The potentials reproduce the isothermal equation of state of Ta up to 300 GPa. We examined the nature of the plastic deformation and elastic limits as functions of crystal orientation. Shock waves along (100), (110), and (111) exhibit elastic-plastic two-wave structures. Plastic deformation in shock compression along (110) is due primarily to the formation of twins that nucleate at the shock front. The strain-rate dependence of the flow stress is found to be orientation dependent, with (110) shocks exhibiting the weaker dependence. Premelting at a temperature much below that of thermodynamic melting at the shock front is observed in all three directions for shock pressures above about 180 GPa.

Notes: This listing is for the reference's potential parameter set Ta2.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2013--Ravelo-R--Ta-2--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: Ta2 interaction in LAMMPS-compatible format. Approved by Prof. Ravelo (Univ. of Texas at El Paso) and posted on 15 Feb. 2014 with his permission.
File(s):
SPaSM
Notes: Ta2 interaction in SPaSM tables. Approved by Prof. Ravelo (Univ. of Texas at El Paso) and posted on 15 Feb. 2014 with his permission.
File(s):
Citation: X.W. Zhou, R.A. Johnson, and H.N.G. Wadley (2004), "Misfit-energy-increasing dislocations in vapor-deposited CoFe/NiFe multilayers", Physical Review B, 69(14), 144113. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.69.144113.
Abstract: Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of [Ni0.8Fe0.2/Au] multilayers have revealed the formation of misfit-strain-reducing dislocation structures very similar to those observed experimentally. Here we report similar simulations showing the formation of edge dislocations near the interfaces of vapor-deposited (111) [NiFe/CoFe/Cu] multilayers. Unlike misfit dislocations that accommodate lattice mismatch, the dislocation structures observed here increase the mismatch strain energy. Stop-action observations of the dynamically evolving atomic structures indicate that during deposition on the (111) surface of a fcc lattice, adatoms may occupy either fcc sites or hcp sites. This results in the random formation of fcc and hcp domains, with dislocations at the domain boundaries. These dislocations enable atoms to undergo a shift from fcc to hcp sites, or vice versa. These shifts lead to missing atoms, and therefore a later deposited layer can have missing planes compared to a previously deposited layer. This dislocation formation mechanism can create tensile stress in fcc films. The probability that such dislocations are formed was found to quickly diminish under energetic deposition conditions.

FORTRAN
Notes: These are the original files sent by X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory) and posted with his permission. C.A. Becker (NIST) modified create.f to include the reference in the generated potential files and the EAM.input file for this composition. These files can be used to generate alloy potentials for Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Fe, Mo, Ta, W, Mg, Co, Ti, and Zr by editing EAM.input. However, as addressed in the reference, these potentials were not designed for use with metal compounds.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Ta--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was generated by C.A. Becker (NIST) from create.f and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission.
File(s): superseded


FORTRAN
Notes: The file Zhou04_create_v2.f is an updated version of create.f modified by L.M. Hale (NIST) following advice from X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory). This version removes spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions of the original potential files caused by single/double precision floating point number conflicts.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Ta--LAMMPS--ipr2)
Notes: This file was generated by L.M. Hale from Zhou04_create_v2.f on 13 April 2018 and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission. This version corrects an issue with spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions.
File(s):
Citation: S. Han, L.A. Zepeda-Ruiz, G.J. Ackland, R. Car, and D.J. Srolovitz (2003), "Interatomic potential for vanadium suitable for radiation damage simulations", Journal of Applied Physics, 93(6), 3328-3335. DOI: 10.1063/1.1555275.
Abstract: The ability to predict the behavior of point defects in metals, particularly interstitial defects, is central to accurate modeling of the microstructural evolution in environments with high radiation fluxes. Existing interatomic potentials of embedded atom method type predict disparate stable interstitial defect configurations in vanadium. This is not surprising since accurate first-principles interstitial data were not available when these potentials were fitted. In order to provide the input information required to fit a vanadium potential appropriate for radiation damage studies, we perform a series of first-principles calculations on six different interstitial geometries and vacancies. These calculations identify the 〈111〉 dumbbell as the most stable interstitial with a formation energy of approximately 3.1 eV, at variance with predictions based upon existing potentials. Our potential is of Finnis–Sinclair type and is fitted exactly to the experimental equilibrium lattice parameter, cohesive energy, elastic constants and a calculated unrelaxed vacancy formation energy. Two additional potential parameters were used to obtain the best fit to the set of interstitial formation energies determined from the first-principles calculations. The resulting potential was found to accurately predict both the magnitude and ordering of the formation energies of six interstitial configurations and the unrelaxed vacancy ground state, in addition to accurately describing the migration characteristics of the stable interstitial and vacancy. This vanadium potential is capable of describing the point defect properties appropriate for radiation damage simulations as well as for simulations of more common crystal and simple defect properties.

Moldy FS
Notes: The parameters in Ta.moldy were obtained from http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/graeme/moldy/moldy.html and posted with the permission of G.J. Ackland.
File(s):
Citation: Y. Li, D.J. Siegel, J.B. Adams, and X.-Y. Liu (2003), "Embedded-atom-method tantalum potential developed by the force-matching method", Physical Review B, 67(12), 125101. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.67.125101.
Abstract: An embedded-atom-method potential for tantalum (Ta) has been carefully constructed by fitting to a combination of experimental and density-functional theory (DFT) data. The fitted data include the elastic constants, lattice constant, cohesive energy, unrelaxed vacancy formation energy, and hundreds of force data calculated by DFT for a variety of structures such as liquids, surfaces, clusters, interstitials, vacancies, and stacking faults. We also fit to the cohesive energy vs volume data from the equation of state for the body-centered-cubic (bcc) Ta and to the calculated cohesive energy using DFT for the face-centered-cubic (fcc) Ta structure. We assess the accuracy of the new potential by comparing several calculated Ta properties with those obtained from other potentials previously reported in the literature. In many cases, the new potential yields superior accuracy at a comparable or lower computational cost.

EAM setfl
Notes: newPP1_47-setfl.txt was sent by Don Siegel (University of Michigan) on 9 Mar. 2010 and posted with his permission.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2003--Li-Y-H--Ta--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: newPP1_47-setfl.eam.alloy is a version of the same potential which has been formatted for use in LAMMPS ("D" was replaced by "E" and "Ta" was added on line 4). It successfully ran with the 20Feb10 version of LAMMPS.
File(s):
Citation: G.J. Ackland, and R. Thetford (1987), "An improved N-body semi-empirical model for body-centred cubic transition metals", Philosophical Magazine A, 56(1), 15-30. DOI: 10.1080/01418618708204464.
Abstract: The recently published semi-empirical potentials of Finnis and Sinclair for the metals V, Nb, Ta, Mo and W appear to give unphysical results for properties involving small interatomic separation. This is remedied by adding to the potentials cores fitted to electron gas calculations on dimers. The adjusted potentials are shown to predict a more realistic pressure-volume relationship. Interstitial formation energies are calculated for various configurations, using quenched molecular dynamics and static relaxation. Some preliminary results on interstitial migration are presented.

Equations
Notes: The file AckThet.pdf was obtained from http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/graeme/moldy/moldy.html and posted with the permission of G.J. Ackland.
File(s):
 
Citation: H. Gao, A. Otero-de-la-Roza, S.M. Aouadi, E.R. Johnson, and A. Martini (2013), "An empirical model for silver tantalate", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 21(5), 55002. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/21/5/055002.
Abstract: A set of parameters for the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was developed to describe the perovskite silver tantalate (AgTaO3). First, MEAM parameters for AgO and TaO were determined based on the structural and elastic properties of the materials in a B1 reference structure predicted by density-functional theory (DFT). Then, using the fitted binary parameters, additional potential parameters were adjusted to enable the empirical potential to reproduce DFT-predicted lattice structure, elastic constants, cohesive energy and equation of state for the ternary AgTaO3. Finally, thermal expansion was predicted by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the newly developed potential and compared directly to experimental values. The agreement with known experimental data for AgTaO3 is satisfactory, and confirms that the new empirical model is a good starting point for further MD studies.

LAMMPS pair_style meam (2013--Gao-H--AgTaO3--LAMMPS--ipr2)
Notes: These files were sent by Dr. Ashlie Martini (Univ. California Merced) and approved for distribution on 6 Jul. 2013. The file AgTaO3_40atoms.dat contains atomic coordinates for the 40-atom cell described in the paper. A sample LAMMPS input script to calculate the cohesive energy of that configuration is in in.AgTaO3. This potential was tested on the following versions of LAMMPS: 5Mar12, 12Apr12, 19May12, 4Jul12, 28Oct12, 21Feb13, 5Jun13, 13Jun13, 17Jun13.
File(s):
 
Citation: G.P. Purja Pun, K.A. Darling, L.J. Kecskes, and Y. Mishin (2015), "Angular-dependent interatomic potential for the Cu-Ta system and its application to structural stability of nano-crystalline alloys", Acta Materialia, 100, 377-391. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2015.08.052.
Abstract: Atomistic computer simulations are capable of providing insights into physical mechanisms responsible for the extraordinary structural stability and strength of immiscible Cu–Ta alloys. To enable reliable simulations of these alloys, we have developed an angular-dependent potential (ADP) for the Cu–Ta system by fitting to a large database of first-principles and experimental data. This, in turn, required the development of a new ADP potential for elemental Ta, which accurately reproduces a wide range of properties of Ta and is transferable to severely deformed states and diverse atomic environments. The new Cu–Ta potential is applied for studying the kinetics of grain growth in nano-crystalline Cu–Ta alloys with different chemical compositions. Ta atoms form nanometer-scale clusters preferentially located at grain boundaries (GBs) and triple junctions. These clusters pin some of the GBs in place and cause a drastic decrease in grain growth by the Zener pinning mechanism. The results of the simulations are well consistent with experimental observations and suggest possible mechanisms of the stabilization effect of Ta.

Notes: This potential is meant to supplant the Hahibon 2008 Cu-Ta ADP potential by providing a refit of the Ta-Ta and Cu-Ta interactions.

LAMMPS pair_style adp (2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Cu-Ta--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was provided by Yuri Mishin (George Mason University) on 11 Sep. 2015.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style adp (2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Cu-Ta--LAMMPS--ipr2)
Notes: This file was provided by Yuri Mishin (George Mason University) on 2 Nov. 2018. Ganga Purja Pun noted that the tabulated values are identical to the version above except that the short range behaviors (r < 0.5 Angstroms) for some functions have been fixed so that they now follow the correct trends.
File(s):
Citation: A. Hashibon, A.Y. Lozovoi, Y. Mishin, C. Elsässer, and P. Gumbsch (2008), "Interatomic potential for the Cu-Ta system and its application to surface wetting and dewetting", Physical Review B, 77(9), 94131. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.77.094131.
Abstract: An angle-dependent interatomic potential has been developed for the Cu-Ta system by crossing two existing potentials for pure Cu and Ta. The cross-interaction functions have been fitted to first-principles data generated in this work. The potential has been extensively tested against first-principles energies not included in the fitting database and applied to molecular dynamics simulations of wetting and dewetting of Cu on Ta. We find that a Cu film placed on a Ta (110) surface dewets from it, forming a Cu droplet on top of a stable Cu monolayer. We also observe that a drop of liquid Cu placed on a clean Ta (110) surface spreads over it as a stable monolayer, while the extra Cu atoms remain in the drop. The stability of a Cu monolayer and instability of thicker Cu films are consistent with recent experiments and first-principles calculations. This agreement demonstrates the utility of the potential for atomistic simulations of Cu-Ta interfaces.

Notes: Prof. Mishin requested the following be noted: There was a typing error in the original ADP paper (Y. Mishin, et al., Acta Mat. 53, 4029 (2005)). More information and a correction can be found in the FAQ. Update 17 Jan. 2014: Prof. Mishin noted that "Our ADP Ta potential has a known error: the elastic constants predicted by the potential as a factor of two different from those reported in the paper. This was the result of a bug in the fitting code that was used during the potential development. All other properties are exactly as reported in the paper. The mixed Cu-Ta interactions are also fine. However, because of this error in the elastic constants, the potential cannot be recommended for studying mechanical properties of pure Ta." Update: The 2015--Purja-Pun-G-P--Cu-Ta ADP potential has supplanted this potential.

ADP tabulated functions
Notes: These files were provided by Yuri Mishin (George Mason University) and posted on 22 Jan. 2010.
File(s): superseded


Citation: X.W. Zhou, R.A. Johnson, and H.N.G. Wadley (2004), "Misfit-energy-increasing dislocations in vapor-deposited CoFe/NiFe multilayers", Physical Review B, 69(14), 144113. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.69.144113.
Abstract: Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of [Ni0.8Fe0.2/Au] multilayers have revealed the formation of misfit-strain-reducing dislocation structures very similar to those observed experimentally. Here we report similar simulations showing the formation of edge dislocations near the interfaces of vapor-deposited (111) [NiFe/CoFe/Cu] multilayers. Unlike misfit dislocations that accommodate lattice mismatch, the dislocation structures observed here increase the mismatch strain energy. Stop-action observations of the dynamically evolving atomic structures indicate that during deposition on the (111) surface of a fcc lattice, adatoms may occupy either fcc sites or hcp sites. This results in the random formation of fcc and hcp domains, with dislocations at the domain boundaries. These dislocations enable atoms to undergo a shift from fcc to hcp sites, or vice versa. These shifts lead to missing atoms, and therefore a later deposited layer can have missing planes compared to a previously deposited layer. This dislocation formation mechanism can create tensile stress in fcc films. The probability that such dislocations are formed was found to quickly diminish under energetic deposition conditions.

FORTRAN
Notes: These are the original files sent by X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory) and posted with his permission. C.A. Becker (NIST) modified create.f to include the reference in the generated potential files and the EAM.input file for this composition. These files can be used to generate alloy potentials for Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Fe, Mo, Ta, W, Mg, Co, Ti, and Zr by editing EAM.input. However, as addressed in the reference, these potentials were not designed for use with metal compounds.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Ta-Cu--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was generated by C.A. Becker (NIST) from create.f and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission. The tabulations in this file are identical to the tabulations in the "CuTa.eam.alloy" file in the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s): superseded


FORTRAN
Notes: The file Zhou04_create_v2.f is an updated version of create.f modified by L.M. Hale (NIST) following advice from X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory). This version removes spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions of the original potential files caused by single/double precision floating point number conflicts.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Ta-Cu--LAMMPS--ipr2)
Notes: This file was generated by L.M. Hale from Zhou04_create_v2.f on 13 April 2018 and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission. This version corrects an issue with spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions.
File(s):
Date Created: October 5, 2010 | Last updated: November 19, 2018