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Citation: X.W. Zhou, R.A. Johnson, and H.N.G. Wadley (2004), "Misfit-energy-increasing dislocations in vapor-deposited CoFe/NiFe multilayers", Physical Review B, 69(14), 144113. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.69.144113.
Abstract: Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the growth of [Ni0.8Fe0.2/Au] multilayers have revealed the formation of misfit-strain-reducing dislocation structures very similar to those observed experimentally. Here we report similar simulations showing the formation of edge dislocations near the interfaces of vapor-deposited (111) [NiFe/CoFe/Cu] multilayers. Unlike misfit dislocations that accommodate lattice mismatch, the dislocation structures observed here increase the mismatch strain energy. Stop-action observations of the dynamically evolving atomic structures indicate that during deposition on the (111) surface of a fcc lattice, adatoms may occupy either fcc sites or hcp sites. This results in the random formation of fcc and hcp domains, with dislocations at the domain boundaries. These dislocations enable atoms to undergo a shift from fcc to hcp sites, or vice versa. These shifts lead to missing atoms, and therefore a later deposited layer can have missing planes compared to a previously deposited layer. This dislocation formation mechanism can create tensile stress in fcc films. The probability that such dislocations are formed was found to quickly diminish under energetic deposition conditions.

FORTRAN
Notes: These are the original files sent by X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory) and posted with his permission. C.A. Becker (NIST) modified create.f to include the reference in the generated potential files and the EAM.input file for this composition. These files can be used to generate alloy potentials for Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Fe, Mo, Ta, W, Mg, Co, Ti, and Zr by editing EAM.input. However, as addressed in the reference, these potentials were not designed for use with metal compounds.
File(s): superseded


LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was generated by C.A. Becker (NIST) from create.f and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission.
File(s): superseded


FORTRAN
Notes: The file Zhou04_create_v2.f is an updated version of create.f modified by L.M. Hale (NIST) following advice from X.W. Zhou (Sandia National Laboratory). This version removes spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions of the original potential files caused by single/double precision floating point number conflicts.
File(s):
LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2004--Zhou-X-W--Pd--LAMMPS--ipr2)
Notes: This file was generated by L.M. Hale from Zhou04_create_v2.f on 13 April 2018 and posted with X.W. Zhou's (Sandia National Laboratory) permission. This version corrects an issue with spurious fluctuations in the tabulated functions.
File(s):
Citation: J.B. Adams, S.M. Foiles, and W.G. Wolfer (1989), "Self-diffusion and impurity diffusion of fcc metals using the five-frequency model and the Embedded Atom Method", Journal of Materials Research, 4(1), 102-112. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.1989.0102.
Abstract: The activation energies for self-diffusion of transition metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt) have been calculated with the Embedded Atom Method (EAM); the results agree well with available experimental data for both mono-vacancy and di-vacancy mechanisms. The EAM was also used to calculate activation energies for vacancy migration near dilute impurities. These energies determine the atomic jump frequencies of the classic "five-frequency formula," which yields the diffusion rates of impurities by a mono-vacancy mechanism. These calculations were found to agree fairly well with experiment and with Neumann and Hirschwald's "Tm" model.

LAMMPS pair_style eam (1989--Adams-J-B--Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: pdu6.txt was obtained from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/ potentials/main/main.htm and posted with the permission of J.B. Adams. The name of the file was retained, even though the header information lists the potential as 'universal 4.' This file is compatible with the "pair_style eam" format in LAMMPS (19Feb09 version).
File(s):
Citation: S.M. Foiles, M.I. Baskes, and M.S. Daw (1986), "Embedded-atom-method functions for the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, and their alloys", Physical Review B, 33(12), 7983-7991. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.33.7983.
Abstract: A consistent set of embedding functions and pair interactions for use with the embedded-atom method [M.S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)] have been determined empirically to describe the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt as well as alloys containing these metals. The functions are determined empirically by fitting to the sublimation energy, equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation energies of the pure metals and the heats of solution of the binary alloys. The validity of the functions is tested by computing a wide range of properties: the formation volume and migration energy of vacancies, the formation energy, formation volume, and migration energy of divacancies and self-interstitials, the surface energy and geometries of the low-index surfaces of the pure metals, and the segregation energy of substitutional impurities to (100) surfaces.

LAMMPS pair_style eam (1986--Foiles-S-M--Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
 
Citation: J.B. Adams, S.M. Foiles, and W.G. Wolfer (1989), "Self-diffusion and impurity diffusion of fcc metals using the five-frequency model and the Embedded Atom Method", Journal of Materials Research, 4(01), 102-112. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.1989.0102.
Abstract: The activation energies for self-diffusion of transition metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt) have been calculated with the Embedded Atom Method (EAM); the results agree well with available experimental data for both mono-vacancy and di-vacancy mechanisms. The EAM was also used to calculate activation energies for vacancy migration near dilute impurities. These energies determine the atomic jump frequencies of the classic "five-frequency formula," which yields the diffusion rates of impurities by a mono-vacancy mechanism. These calculations were found to agree fairly well with experiment and with Neumann and Hirschwald's "Tm" model.

Notes: Cross-element interactions were only considered for small (1-2%) impurity concentrations and use a generalized universal function.

LAMMPS pair_style eam (1989--Adams-J-B--Ag-Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Pt--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: These files were obtained from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/ potentials/main/main.htm and posted with the permission of J.B. Adams. The name of the file was retained, even though the header information lists the potential as 'universal 4.' Except for the first comment line, "cuu6.txt" is identical to "Cu_u6.eam" in the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
Citation: S.M. Foiles, M.I. Baskes, and M.S. Daw (1986), "Embedded-atom-method functions for the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, and their alloys", Physical Review B, 33(12), 7983-7991. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.33.7983.
Abstract: A consistent set of embedding functions and pair interactions for use with the embedded-atom method [M.S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)] have been determined empirically to describe the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt as well as alloys containing these metals. The functions are determined empirically by fitting to the sublimation energy, equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation energies of the pure metals and the heats of solution of the binary alloys. The validity of the functions is tested by computing a wide range of properties: the formation volume and migration energy of vacancies, the formation energy, formation volume, and migration energy of divacancies and self-interstitials, the surface energy and geometries of the low-index surfaces of the pure metals, and the segregation energy of substitutional impurities to (100) surfaces.

Notes: The cross-elemental interactions use a universal function designed to show trends across the metals and is not fitted for revealing compounds.

LAMMPS pair_style eam (1986--Foiles-S-M--Ag-Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Pt--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: These files were taken from the August 22, 2018 LAMMPS distribution.
File(s):
 
Citation: L.M. Hale, B.M. Wong, J.A. Zimmerman, and X.W. Zhou (2013), "Atomistic potentials for palladium-silver hydrides", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 21(4), 45005. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/21/4/045005.
Abstract: New embedded-atom method potentials for the ternary palladium–silver–hydrogen system are developed by extending a previously developed palladium–hydrogen potential. The ternary potentials accurately capture the heat of mixing and structural properties associated with solid solution alloys of palladium–silver. Stable hydrides are produced with properties that smoothly transition across the compositions. Additions of silver to palladium are predicted to alter the properties of the hydrides by decreasing the miscibility gap and increasing the likelihood of hydrogen atoms occupying tetrahedral interstitial sites over octahedral interstitial sites.

Notes: This listing is for the potential with the hybrid-style Pd-Ag interaction as described in the article.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2013--Hale-L-M--Pd-Ag-H-Hybrid--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was supplied by Jonathan Zimmerman (Sandia National Laboratories) and posted with his approval on 9 April 2014. Dr. Zimmerman noted that this file is the version that used the Hybrid style for the Pd-Ag interaction. This file has also been modified to include the citation in the header information and include '.alloy' in the file name for clarity.
File(s):
OpenKIM (MO_104806802344_000)
Notes: Link to the KIM-compliant version of the Hybrid-based interatomic potential. https://openkim.org/projects-using-kim/ provides links to instructions for the use of KIM-compliant versions of these potentials. Links to the KIM-related content were provided by Prof. Ryan Elliott (U. Minnesota, KIM Editor).
File(s):
Citation: L.M. Hale, B.M. Wong, J.A. Zimmerman, and X.W. Zhou (2013), "Atomistic potentials for palladium-silver hydrides", Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 21(4), 45005. DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/21/4/045005.
Abstract: New embedded-atom method potentials for the ternary palladium–silver–hydrogen system are developed by extending a previously developed palladium–hydrogen potential. The ternary potentials accurately capture the heat of mixing and structural properties associated with solid solution alloys of palladium–silver. Stable hydrides are produced with properties that smoothly transition across the compositions. Additions of silver to palladium are predicted to alter the properties of the hydrides by decreasing the miscibility gap and increasing the likelihood of hydrogen atoms occupying tetrahedral interstitial sites over octahedral interstitial sites.

Notes: This listing is for the potential with the Morse-style Pd-Ag interaction as described in the article.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2013--Hale-L-M--Pd-Ag-H-Morse--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was supplied by Jonathan Zimmerman (Sandia National Laboratories) and posted with his approval on 9 April 2014. Dr. Zimmerman noted that this file is the version that used the Hybrid style for the Pd-Ag interaction. This file has also been modified to include the citation in the header information and include '.alloy' in the file name for clarity.
File(s):
OpenKIM (MO_108983864770_000)
Notes: Link to the KIM-compliant version of the Morse-based interatomic potential. https://openkim.org/projects-using-kim/ provides links to instructions for the use of KIM-compliant versions of these potentials. Links to the KIM-related content were provided by Prof. Ryan Elliott (U. Minnesota, KIM Editor).
File(s):
 
Citation: D. Schopf, P. Brommer, B. Frigan, and H.-R. Trebin (2012), "Embedded atom method potentials for Al-Pd-Mn phases", Physical Review B, 85(5), 54201. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.85.054201.
Abstract: A novel embedded atom method (EAM) potential for the Ξ phases of Al-Pd-Mn has been determined with the force-matching method. Different combinations of analytic functions were tested for the pair and transfer part. The best results are obtained if one allows for oscillations on two different length scales. These potentials stabilize structure models of the Ξ phases and describe their energy with high accuracy. Simulations at temperatures up to 1200 K show very good agreement with ab initio results with respect to stability and dynamics of the system.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2012--Schopf-D--Al-Mn-Pd--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This version is compatible with LAMMPS. UPDATE 11 June 2012: The version posted on 26 April 2012 had an extra line in the header and did not work with LAMMPS. This was brought to our attention by Daniel Schopf and the correct version has been posted. Original note: This file was provided by Daniel Schopf (Stuttgart University) and posted with his permission on 26 April 2012.
File(s):
IMD option EAM
 
Citation: X.W. Zhou, J.A. Zimmerman, B.M. Wong, and J.J. Hoyt (2008), "An embedded-atom method interatomic potential for Pd-H alloys", Journal of Materials Research, 23(3), 704-718. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2008.0090.
Abstract: Palladium hydrides have important applications. However, the complex Pd–H alloy system presents a formidable challenge to developing accurate computational models. In particular, the separation of a Pd–H system to dilute (α) and concentrated (β) phases is a central phenomenon, but the capability of interatomic potentials to display this phase miscibility gap has been lacking. We have extended an existing palladium embedded-atom method potential to construct a new Pd–H embedded-atom method potential by normalizing the elemental embedding energy and electron density functions. The developed Pd–H potential reasonably well predicts the lattice constants, cohesive energies, and elastic constants for palladium, hydrogen, and PdHx phases with a variety of compositions. It ensures the correct hydrogen interstitial sites within the hydrides and predicts the phase miscibility gap. Preliminary molecular dynamics simulations using this potential show the correct phase stability, hydrogen diffusion mechanism, and mechanical response of the Pd–H system.

LAMMPS pair_style eam/alloy (2008--Zhou-X-W--Pd-H--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was supplied by Xiaowang Zhou and Jonathan Zimmerman (Sandia National Laboratories) and posted with their approval on 24 March 2011.
File(s):
Date Created: October 5, 2010 | Last updated: October 05, 2018