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Citation: X.W. Zhou, D.K. Ward, J.E. Martin, F.B. van Swol, J.L. Cruz-Campa, and D. Zubia (2013), "Stillinger-Weber potential for the II-VI elements Zn-Cd-Hg-S-Se-Te", Physical Review B, 88(8), 85309. DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.88.085309.
Abstract: Bulk and multilayered thin film crystals of II-VI semiconductor compounds are the leading materials for infrared sensing, γ-ray detection, photovoltaics, and quantum dot lighting applications. The key to achieving high performance for these applications is reducing crystallographic defects. Unfortunately, past efforts to improve these materials have been prolonged due to a lack of understanding with regards to defect formation and evolution mechanisms. To enable high-fidelity and high-efficiency atomistic simulations of defect mechanisms, this paper develops a Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential database for semiconductor compounds composed of the major II-VI elements Zn, Cd, Hg, S, Se, and Te. The potential's fidelity is achieved by optimizing all the pertinent model parameters, by imposing reasonable energy trends to correctly capture the transformation between elemental, solid solution, and compound phases, and by capturing exactly the experimental cohesive energies, lattice constants, and bulk moduli of all binary compounds. Verification tests indicate that our model correctly predicts crystalline growth of all binary compounds during molecular dynamics simulations of vapor deposition. Two stringent cases convincingly show that our potential is applicable for a variety of compound configurations involving all the six elements considered here. In the first case, we demonstrate a successful molecular dynamics simulation of crystalline growth of an alloyed (Cd0.28Zn0.68Hg0.04) (Te0.20Se0.18S0.62) compound on a ZnS substrate. In the second case, we demonstrate the predictive power of our model on defects, such as misfit dislocations, stacking faults, and subgrain nucleation, using a complex growth simulation of ZnS/CdSe/HgTe multilayers that also contain all the six elements considered here. Using CdTe as a case study, a comprehensive comparison of our potential with literature potentials is also made. Finally, we also propose unique insights for improving the Stillinger-Weber potential in future developments.

LAMMPS pair_style sw (2013--Zhou-X-W--Zn-Cd-Hg-S-Se-Te--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was sent by Dr. Xiaowang Zhou (Sandia National Laboratories) and approved for distribution on 11 Sept. 2013. This file is compatible with LAMMPS and is intended to be used for elements and compounds of the Zn-Cd-Hg-S-Se-Te system (II-VI semiconductors).
Citation: M.M. Islam, A. Ostadhossein, O. Borodin, A. Todd Yeates, W.W. Tipton, R.G. Hennig, N. Kumar, and A.C.T. van Duin (2015), "ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations on lithiated sulfur cathode materials", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17(5), 3383-3393. DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04532g.
Abstract: Sulfur is a very promising cathode material for rechargeable energy storage devices. However, sulfur cathodes undergo a noticeable volume variation upon cycling, which induces mechanical stress. In spite of intensive investigation of the electrochemical behavior of the lithiated sulfur compounds, their mechanical properties are not very well understood. In order to fill this gap, we developed a ReaxFF interatomic potential to describe Li–S interactions and performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the structural, mechanical, and kinetic behavior of the amorphous lithiated sulfur (a-LixS) compounds. We examined the effect of lithiation on material properties such as ultimate strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus. Our results suggest that with increasing lithium content, the strength of lithiated sulfur compounds improves, although this increment is not linear with lithiation. The diffusion coefficients of both lithium and sulfur were computed for the a-LixS system at various stages of Li-loading. A grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) scheme was used to calculate the open circuit voltage profile during cell discharge. The Li–S binary phase diagram was constructed using genetic algorithm based tools. Overall, these simulation results provide insight into the behavior of sulfur based cathode materials that are needed for developing lithium–sulfur batteries.

ReaxFF (2015--Islam-M-M--Li-S--LAMMPS--ipr1)
Notes: This file was sent by Dr. Md Mahbubul Islam (Purdue University) on 2 August 2017 and posted with his permission.
Date Created: October 5, 2010 | Last updated: October 02, 2018